Q1) Explain the reason why pre-activity health screening is necessary
Pre activity health screening is used to highlight health problems that may be aggravated by physical exercise. A fitness instructor can then assess and prescribe the correct fitness plan for the individual. Screening takes place in the form of a questionnaire and physiological measurements.
Some health risks looked for by taking part in pre activity health screening are shown by Woolf, May (2006), categorised by risk factor. The first category is known as ‘primary risk factor’s’ which include high cholesterol and high blood pressure. These problems are related to some of highest risks to health such as heart attack when completing exercise . The ‘Secondary risk factor’s’ that may be aggravated by exercise include obesity that is indicated by a body mass index of over thirty kg/m2 and physical inactivity indicated by a failure to reach the minimum fitness standard required. The last category is ‘non modifiable risks’ that is made up of factors that can not be helped such as age and a family history of heart disease. Someone over the age of fifty is also considered to be a factor in this category.
When an individual has completed a health screening questionnaire they may then be asked to take part in further tests in the form of physiological measurements. A persons body mass index may be taken by dividing their weight by height. This can tell a fitness instructor whether the individual is over weight which would need consideration when an exercise plan was produced. An individuals blood pressure may also be taken as a high reading is considered a high risk factor contributing to coronary heart disease. Another test that may be carried out would be the weight to hip ratio which measures distribution of fat around the body. If the person has more weight around the abdomen it is known as ‘apple shaped’ and is related to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
Completing pre activity health screening is becoming increasingly important for the fitness industry as the need for their services becomes more popular. The evidence shown suggests that health screening has the potential to save lives through diagnosing health problems that may be aggravated by certain physical activity, however a different kind of activity may be appropriate. Although health screening questionnaires are good for highlighting health risks the physiological measurements taken after are vital to further help both the instructor and the individual to diagnose health problems. (405)
Q2) Discuss and analyse Reshma’s results. Your analysis should identify whether or not the results fall into healthy ranges, and discuss the implications of this with a particular focus on the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
Reshma’s PAR questionnaire showed that she answered ‘no’ all the questions, however she admitted to smoking ten cigarettes a day which is putting her at risk of serious health problems and is classed as a ‘primary health risk’ leading to coronary heart disease (Woolf May 2006). A number of physiological measurements were then taken.
Reshma had a blood pressure which read 140 over 100 millimetres of mercury. Andy Russel explains that the first reading is systolic pressure which is a contracting heart and diastolic pressure is the heart relaxed. The average reading should be between 100 to 140 over 60 to 90 (mmhg) (The Open University 2008). A reading over 130 and 85 provides more risk of coronary heart disease in middle aged people .(Vasan et al 2001).
Reshma then had her resting heart rate measured at 90 beats per minute. According to Netfit (2009), the average heart beat of a women of 48 years old should be between 74 and 77 and anything over 84 BPM is...
Bibliography: 1 & 2) Woolf, May (2006), study topic 3: Minimising the health risks of physical activity in E112 Introduction to Sport, Fitness and Management study guide, Milton Keynes, The Open University.
3) The Open University (2008) E112 Introduction to Sport, Fitness and Management DVD, Milton Keynes, The Open University.
4) Vasan et al (2001) ‘Hypertension and Stroke’ in Fitness and Health (6th edn) Sharky and Gaskill (2007), Leeds, Human Kinetics.
5) Netfit (2009) ‘Resting Heart Rate’ (online). Available from: Http://netfit.co.uk/fitness/test/resting-heart-rate.htm (accessed 17th January 2010).
6) The Open University (2008) E112 Introduction to Sport, Fitness and Management DVD, Milton Keynes, The Open University.
7) Sharky, B. J. and Gaskill, S. E. (2007) Fitness and Health (6th edn), Leeds, Human Kinetics.
8) Family Education (2009) ‘Fat Percentage Chart’ (online), Available from: Http://life.familyeducation.com/weight/body-image/46748.html (Accessed 17th January 2010).
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11) Heany and Goody (2008) ‘Physical Activity and Health and Safety’ in E112 Introduction to Sport, Fitness and Management Study Guide, Milton Keynes, The Open University.
12) Goody,M.(2008) Negligence: ‘Legal Frameworks of Health and Safety’ in Oakley, B. and Rhys, M.(eds) The Sport and Fitness Sector: An Introduction, London, Routledge/Milton Keynes, The Open University.
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