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Topics: Capitalism, Sociology, Culture Pages: 95 (7111 words) Published: October 13, 2014
The Impact of National Culture and Economic Ideology on Managerial Work Values: A Study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China
Author(s): David A. Ralston, David H. Holt, Robert H. Terpstra and Yu Kai-Cheng Source: Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 39, No. 1 (Jan. - Feb., 2008), pp. 8-26 Published by: Palgrave Macmillan Journals

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.W^
journal of International Business Studies (2008) 39,8 26
m^ ? 2008 Academyof International
Business All rights
reserved
0047-2506 $30.00
www.jibs.net

2007 DECADE AWARD
WINNING ARTICLE

The

culture
and economic
impact of national
a
on
values:
work
study
ideology
managerial
of the United
States,
Russia,
Japan, and China

David A Ralston1,
David H Holt2, Robert H
Terpstra3 and Yu Kai-Cheng4
1
University of Connecticut;
2Lingnan College;
3
4Dalian University of
University of Macau;
Technology
David A Ralston,
Correspondence:
Price College
of Business,
University
PO Box 720302,
Norman,
Oklahoma,
USA.
73070,
E-mail:

dralston@ou.edu

Abstract
This study assesses the impact of economic ideology and national culture on the individualwork values of managers in the United States, Russia, japan, and was used
China. The convergence-divergence-crossvergence (CDC) framework as a theoretical frameworkfor the study,while the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) was used to operationalize our investigationof managerial work values across these fourcountries. The findings largelysupport the crossvergence perspective, while also confirming the role of national culture. Implications from the findings are drawn

of
OK

for the convergence-divergence-crossvergence

of values,

as well

as

for the feasibility multidomestic or global strategies fora corporate culture. of
of InternationalBusiness Studies (2008) 39, 8-26.
journal
doi: 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400330

INTRODUCTION
or divergence of work values has been an impor
The convergence
tant debate for the past several decades as international
companies
the diverse value
have struggled to understand
systems of their
values of
the cross-societal
and whether
multidomestic
operations
their workforces are becoming more alike or not (Abegglen, 1957;

1973;
1987; England & Lee, 1974; Eisenstadt,
1973; Dunphy,
1987; Negandhi,
Kelley & Reeser, 1973; Kelley, Whatley, & Worthley,
1980;
1975; Ottaway, Bhatnagar, & Korol, 1989; Pascale & Maguire,
& Terpstra,
Prahalad & Doz,
1987; Ralston, Gustafson,
Cheung,
1990; Webber,
1969). Now,
1993; Ricks, Toyne, & Martinez,
are considering
however, many of these international
companies
a
in the sense of having
global organizations
trying to become
a
In essence, being
to organization.
seamless or borderless approach
a universal
corporate culture.
implies having
global organization
Since corporate culture grows out of the values held by organiza of the
the influential members
tional members,
especially
all
is one where
culture
a universal
corporate
organization,
in the world
of where
of the organization
members
regardless
- have...
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