IPRI Journal X, no. 2 (Summer Hussain Shaheed Soherwordi Syed 2010): 16-38
P AKISTAN ’ S F OREIGN P OLICY I NTERACTION WITH US F OREIGN P OLICY M AKING B ODIES (1947-2010): A N A NALYSIS
Dr Syed Hussain Shaheed Soherwordi∗
Abstract This paper reviews applied foreign policy, realism, the “Levels of Analysis” by Kenneth Waltz, and decision-making units to focus on the theoretical and analytical foundations of Pakistan’s foreign policy. “Levels of Analysis” and realism are defined so that the entire face of the argument may be understood in its true perspective. It identifies decision making units in Pakistan as well as in the US and their interaction in the light of Waltz’s “Levels of Analysis”. Keeping Pakistan and its army’s approach towards India in view, neighbouring relations are based on the norms of survival, jealousy, power, identity, and comparison. Therefore, the realist school of thought and Kenneth Waltz’s “Levels of Analysis” are applied to the South Asian regional foreign and security policy paradigm as well as the Pakistan Army’s relationship with the US policy-makers.
Introduction o understand the theoretical and analytical foundations of Pakistan’s foreign policy, we have to review certain basic facts. First, foreign policy as a concept and its effects on history is important to note. As the Pak-US institutional interaction (between the State Department, the White House and the Pentagon and the Pakistan Army) was based on the vested interests of each respective alliance-party, the realist school of thought is assessed with respect to the role of history in the foreign policy making process. Second, there is a need to scrutinise the “levels of analysis” given by Kenneth Waltz and its application on Pakistan’s foreign policy. Though Waltz has given his levels of analysis for the study of the causes of war, I have applied Waltz’s theory with respect to US policy making bodies’ interaction with Pakistan’s. And