Influence is the essence of leadership. To be effective as a leader, it is necessary to influence people to carry out requests, support proposals, and implement decisions. Power- The concept of "power" is useful for understanding how people are able to influence each other in organizations. Power involves the capacity of one party (the "agent") to influence another party (the "target"). Authority involves the rights, obligations, and duties associated with particular positions in an organization or social system. A leader with direct authority over a target person has the right to make requests consistent with this authority, and the target person has the duty to obey. Outcomes of Influence Attempts
One useful basis for evaluating the success of an influence attempt is whether the immediate outcome is what the agent intended. Commitment -The term commitment describes an outcome in which the target person internally agrees with a decision or request from the agent and makes a great effort to carry out the request or implement the decision effectively. Compliance- The term compliance describes an outcome in which the target is willing to do what the agent asks but will make only a minimal effort. Resistance- The term resistance describes an outcome in which the target person is opposed to the proposal or request, and actively tries to avoid carrying it out. Influence Processes
The explanation for the influence of one person on another involves the motives and perceptions of the target in relation to the actions of the agent. Instrumental Compliance- The motivation for the behavior is purely instrumental; the only reason for compliance is to gain some tangible benefit from the agent. Internalization- The target person becomes committed to support and implement proposals by the agent because they appear to be desirable and correct in relation to the target's values, beliefs, and self-image. Personal Identification- The target person imitates the agent’s behavior...
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