Title: Poverty and Health In Developing Countries
Poverty tends to be the main issue for United Human Development and Wold Human Organisation. Poverty usually reflects to the poor society in a country. Who are the poor? Obviously, rural dwellers where rural Asia and Africa have 60% to 80%, women constitute 70% of world poor, elderly, children and ethnic minorities. The degrees or magnitude of absolute poverty in developing countries, understand the meaning of absolute poverty by the number of people who are unable to command sufficient resources to satisfy basic needs. Poverty happens all over the world whether in low, middle or high income countries. However, our research is focus on developing countries. This is because many researches and studies have been done on developing countries. Poverty in the developed countries is not as serious as in developing countries. Poverty is associated with the undermining of a range of key human attributes, including health. Poor or low income society often has shorter life expectancy and high infant mortality rate. This is because the poor are exposed to greater personal and environmental health risks, are less well nourished, and are less able to access health care as well as the levels of private and public expenditures on health also have impact on the society health. Therefore they face a higher risk of illness, like HIV/AIDS. In reality, the consequences of poverty exist on a relative scale. The poorest of the poor, around the world, have the worst health. LITERATURE REVIEW
Edward believes that poverty and its consequence were preventable or amenable to control. George, M.D., M.P.H., F.A.P.H.A. (1965:1757) supports his arguments in his case study. George (1965) says that there are three basic points of view about poverty and health. Firstly, accept poverty as a practical goal that it can be eliminated. Secondly, poverty is such a tremendous drain on our society that it is to the advantage of the solvent, as well as the poor, that it can be eliminated. Lastly is poverty prevention rather than poverty relief. Poverty is a prime example of a vicious cycle, social as well as medical. The poor family of today is producing the poor families of tomorrow. George (1965) focuses specifically on the effects of poverty on health and some recommendations. We can act against poverty itself and raise the standard of living of poor. Ahmed and Christina(2009) shows that the results from its research in South Mediterranean show that life expectancy at birth (health) is strongly related to GDP per capita (wealth/poverty) and its square, implying that life expectancy at the level of this region of the world is directly under the effect of GDP per capita, and that an increase (decrease) of 1 leads to a net increase(decrease) of life expectancy by 0.45. This same measure of wealth also explains under-five mortality rate (health), and an increase (decrease) of GDP by 1 unit decreases(increases) this variant of mortality by 0.74 units. The obtained result also demonstrates the existence of a strong positive relationship between GDP and the number of physicians per 1,000 people. This clarifies the other results, where female adult mortality, maternal mortality ratio, life expectancy at birth and others. The results from its research also clearly show that improvements (decreases) in GDP are likely to generate better(lower) health conditions for both mothers and children in this region. While "the number of physicians" is positively related to GDP, any reduction(enhancement) due to other mechanisms like brain drain increases (decreases) the mortality rate. Philippe(2011) shows that children born in the slum settlements have higher mortality than those born outside slums, suggesting that delivery while residing in slum settlements have debilitating health consequences on children. The highest mortality rate was observed among slum-born children whose mothers were pregnant at the time of...
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Lucia Knight, Pranitha Maharaj
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Shruti Kapoor. (2009, March). Infant Mortality in India: District-Level Variations and Correlations. Paper presented at the Pacific Conference for Development Economics (PACDEV).
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