Poverty and Government Policies

Topics: Poverty, Poverty in the United States, Poverty threshold Pages: 29 (9992 words) Published: December 5, 2012
POVERTY:
AN
OVERVIEW
STUDY
BY- utkarsh jaimini

ABSTRACT
This paper tries to summarise the current state of knowledge about poverty and identify the agenda for further research. It views chronic poverty in terms of severity, extended duration and multidimensional deprivation. It tries to identify the states and regions that have a high incidence of people with incomes severely below the poverty line so as to focus attention on areas that are spatial poverty traps. Those unable to access even two square meals a day are considered to be the most severely deprived and hunger exists even in the supposedly better parts of India. Policy action is needed to address this. Attention is also drawn to the importance of identifying those who are vulnerable to extreme poverty due to inability to absorb the impact of shocks. Poverty is the sum total of a multiplicity of factors that include not just income and calorie intake but also access to land and credit, nutrition, health and longevity, literacy and education and safe drinking water, sanitation and other infrastructural facilities. The paper presents and analyses estimates of multidimensional indicators of poverty that reflect human and gender development and empowerment as also infant mortality estimates and female literacy. An attempt is made to see if areas suffering from a high incidence of severe income poverty also suffer deprivation in access to literacy, knowledge, nutrition, voice and infrastructure. The disproportionately high incidence of chronic poverty among historically marginalised groups such as scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, the elderly, women and the disabled is analysed. The multiple deprivations suffered by these groups make it harder for them to escape from poverty. The paper briefly looks at policy interventions in the context of poverty reduction as also attempts by communities to demand accountability and transparency in government spending in the name of the poor. It concludes with a summary of the key findings and agenda for further research.

Contents

ABSTRACT
ABBREVIATIONS
I. INTRODUCTION
II. POVERTY AND SOCIAL EXCLUSION

III. RURAL POVERTY

IV. URBAN POVERTY

V. TRENDS OF POVERTY IN INDIA
Trends and incidents of income poverty in india
Rural urban distribution of poor
Poverty in states
VI. MEASURING POVERTY
VII. OFFICIAL VIEWS OF POVERTY
Conservative government 1979-1997
Labour government sinc 1997
VIII. GOVERNMENT TARGET TO REMOVE POVERTY

ABBREVIATIONS
APP Anti Poverty Programmes
BIMARU Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh
BPL Below Poverty Line
CERFE Gruppocerfe or CERFE Research Programmes on Poverty DPAP Drought Prone Area Programme
EAS Employment Assurance Scheme
FCI Food Corporation of India
GDI Gender Development Index
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GEM Gender Empowerment Measure
HDI Human Development Index
HDR Human Development Report
HPI Human Poverty Index
IMR Q1 Infant Mortality Rate between 0 and 1 year of age
IMY Indira Mahila Yojana
JGSY Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana
MKSS Mazdoor Kisan Sangharash Samiti
MPCE Monthly Per Capita Expenditure
NCAER National Council for Applied Economic Research
NDTV New Delhi Television
NGO Non Government Organisation
NIRD National Institute for Rural Development
NSAP National Social Assistance Programme
NSSO National Sample Survey Organisation.
PDS Public Distribution System
PMGY Pradhan Manti Gramodaya Yojana
RMK Rashtriya Mahila Kosh
RRA Remote Rural Area
SAT Semi Arid Tropics
SC/ST Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes
SJGSY Swarana Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana
SJSRY Swarna Jayanti Rozgar Yojana
TPDS Targeted Public Distribution System
UNDP United...


Cited: in David Gordon, ‘Measuring absolute and overall poverty’, in D. Gordon and P. Townsend
(eds.), Breadline Europe: The measurement of poverty, 2000, p4
[ 6 ]. Peter Townsend, Poverty in the United Kingdom, 1979, p31
[ 7 ]
Room (ed.), Beyond the Threshold: The Measurement and Analysis of Social Exclusion, 1995
[ 9 ]
Reality, Responses, ILO, 1995
[ 10 ]
Employment and Opportunity, CASEpaper 4, 1998;
[ 11 ]
[ 12 ]. European Commission, Joint Report on Social Exclusion summarising the results of the examination of
the National Action Plans for Social Inclusion (2003-2005), COM(2003) 773 final, 12 December 2003;
[ 19 ]. See Baharaoglu and Kessides, 2002, “Urban Poverty” in World Bank, 2002, A Sourcebook for Poverty
Reduction Strategies, Chapter 16.
[ 20 ]. See for example B. Abel Smith and P. Townsend, The Poor and the Poorest, 1965. Between 1972 and
1985 the UK Department of Health and Social Security also published the ‘Low Income Families’ series
Income Families 1985, DEP 3955, 1998. The series was replaced by ‘Households Below Average
Income’ in 1988, but the Institute for Fiscal Studies continued to produce the figures for the House of
Welfare policy in Britain: the road from 1945, 1999
[ 23 ]
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