http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/sociology/poverty/revise-it/definitions-of-poverty ‘Townsend, P. (1979) Poverty in the United Kingdom, London, Allen Lane and Penguin Books’ http://www.poverty.ac.uk/free-resources-books/poverty-united-kingdom http://www.poverty.org.uk/summary/social%20exclusion.shtml
http://www.theregister.co.uk/2014/09/21/poverty_what_poverty/?page=2 https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/319280/Fuel_Poverty_Report_Final.pdf http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/nov/11/low-paid-workers-poverty-trap-report http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/jul/04/food-bank-britain-can-mps-agree-causes-uk-poverty http://ukfeminista.org.uk/take-action/facts-and-statistics-on-gender-inequality/#link2 http://www.poverty.org.uk/09/index.shtml
http://www.eapn.eu/en/what-is-poverty/how-is-poverty-measured http://www.poverty.ac.uk/definitions-poverty/income-threshold-approach Feminists claim there are many factors that place women at higher risk of poverty and inequality. They feel that women are disadvantaged in the labour market and are seen as secondary workers. In their opinion, the country must provide free childcare in order for women to freely compete with men. (Haralambos 1995). Peter Townsend et al (1987) identified four main groups which make up the majority of female in poverty. These were detailed as; Women who care for their children or other dependants. For this reason they are unable to take paid employment or are forced to take on part time jobs which limits their careers. Lone parent women. They may have a job but it may be part time or a low earning position Elderly women
Low earning women who, along with other earners within the family, still do not exceed the poverty line Taylor et al also informs us that in general, 62% of adults who receive income support are women and women are paid less than men. The Gender Equality Strategy Statistics (2011) tells us that in 2009 part-time working was largely down to females with 10% of males in working part-time compared to 40% of females. These figures have remained relatively stable over time.
Poverty is a hugely contested concept. Many suggest that poverty is deemed as an undesirable state and individuals in this state need to be helped so that their situation is changed. However there is disagreement on how it should be defined and in addition, how it is measured. This paper will discuss the different theories of poverty, how poverty can be measured and whether there is poverty or inequality in the UK. In 1899 Seebohm Rowntree conducted a study in York in order to counter the idea that poverty was due to laziness and individual failings. He devised a poverty line which was done to establish the amount of money needed for food, fuel, light, clothing, household and personal sundries and shelter required for a healthy life. The amount was adjusted to family size and according to his study 33% of the survey population lived in poverty. Talk about critisms of this study and lead this on to townsend. p127 haralambos Then talk about marxist views, functionalist views and feminist views p166 167
little agreement on how it should be either defined or measured. This is particularly true of attempts to define relative poverty. Thus, contemporary attempts to investigate poverty usually fall back on official subsistence definitions, as represented by the safety-net minimum social security benefit levels. The general term for such minimum income schemes is social assistance, and at the present time in Britain the scheme is called income support. These benefits can be seen as a sort of 'official' poverty line. However, governments have been reluctant to accept the use of benefit ratesas indicators of poverty since to do so would be to acknowledge the need for far ranging and very costly...
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