Potter and Nim

Powerful Essays
Topics: Validity
This article was downloaded by: [University of Cape Town Libraries] On: 16 March 2013, At: 22:30 Publisher: Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

Journal of Applied Communication Research
Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rjac20

Rethinking validity and reliability in content analysis
W. James Potter & Deborah Levine‐Donnerstein a a b

Professor in the Department of Communication, Florida State University, 356 Diffenbaugh Building, Tallahassee, FL, 32306–1531 E-mail: b Lecturer in the Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara Version of record first published: 21 May 2009.

To cite this article: W. James Potter & Deborah Levine‐Donnerstein (1999): Rethinking validity and reliability in content analysis, Journal of Applied Communication Research, 27:3, 258-284 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00909889909365539

PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-andconditions This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae, and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.

Journal of Applied Communication Research 27 (1999), 258-284



References: Ader, C. R. (1995). A longitudinal study of agenda setting for the issue of environmental pollution. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 72, 300-331. Anastasi, A. (1976). Psychological testing (4th ed.). New York: Macmillan. Babbie, E. (1992). The practice of social research. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Bartko, J. J., & Carpenter, W. T. (1976). Methods and theory of reliability. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 163, 307-317. Berelson, B. (1952). Content analysis in communication research. New York: The Free Press. Carlsmith, J. M., Ellsworth, P. C., & Aronson, E. (1976). Methods of research in social psychology. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Chiles, A. M., & Zorn, T. E. (1995). Empowerment in organizations: Employees ' perceptions of the influences on empowerment. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 23, 1-25. Cohen, J. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 37-46. Cole, J. (1995). The UCLA television violence monitoring report. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Center for Communication Policy. Coulson, D. C., & Hansen, A. (1995). The Louisville Courier-Journal 's news content after purchase by Gannett. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 72, 205-215. Davie, W. R., & Lee, J-S. (1995). Sex, violence and consonance/differentiation: An analysis of local TV news values. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 72, 128-138. Evans, W. (1995). The mundane and the arcane: Prestige media coverage of social and natural science. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 72, 168-177. Folger, J. P., Hewes, D. E., & Poole, M. S. (1984). Coding social interaction. In B. Dervin & M. J. Voigt (Eds.), Progress in communication sciences, Volume IV (pp. 115-161). Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Franz, C. R., & Jin, G. (1995). The structure of group conflict in a collaborative work group during information systems development. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 23, 108-127. Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Morgan, M., & Signorielli, N. (1980). The "mainstreaming" of America: Violence profile no. 11. Journal of Communication, 30(3), 10-29. Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine. Glass, G. V., & Stanley, J. C. (1970). Statistical methods in education and psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Gorham, J. (1994). Sex in primetime television: An analysis of content trends, context categories, and sampling considerations. Communication Research Reports, 11, 177-188. Greenberg, B. S. (1980). Life on television: Content analysis of U. S. TV drama. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Greenberg, B. S., Edison, N., Korzenny, F., Fernandez-Collado, C., & Atkin, C. K. (1980). In B. S. Greenberg (Ed.), Life on television: Content analysis of U. S. TV drama (pp. 99-128). Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Hays, W. L. (1981). Statistics (3rd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Hecht, M., Trost, M. R., Bator, R. J., & MacKinnon, D. (1997). Ethnicity and sex similarities and differences in drug resistance. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 25, 75-97. Holsti, O. R. (1969). Content analysis for the social sciences and the humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Johnston, A., & White, A. B. (1994). Communication styles and female candidates: A study of the political advertising during the 1986 senate elections. Journalism Quarterly, 71, 321-329. Kenny, D. A. (1991). A general model of consensus and accuracy in interpersonal perception. Psychological Review, 98, 155-163. Kerlinger, F. N. (1986). Foundations of behavioral research (3rd ed.). New York: CBS College Publishing. King, E. G. (1995). The flawed characters in the campaign: Prestige newspaper assessments of the 1992 presidential candidates ' integrity and competence. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 72, 84-97. Krippendorff, K. (1980). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Kunkel, D., Farinola, W. J., Cope, K. M., Donnerstein, E., Bielby, E., & Zwarun, L. (1998). An assessment of the television industry 's use of V-chip ratings. Menlo Park, CA: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Lazarsfeld, P. F., & Barton, A. (1969). Qualitative measurement: A codification of techniques for social science. In L. I. Krimerman (Ed.), The nature and scope of social science: A critical anthology (pp. 514-549). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Downloaded by [University of Cape Town Libraries] at 22:30 16 March 2013 284 RETHINKING POTTER & LEVINE-DONNERSTEIN Leslie, M. (1995). Slow fade to?: Advertising in Ebony magazine, 1957-1989. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 72, 426-435. Lewis, C., & Neville, J. (1995). Images of Rosie: A content analysis of women workers in American magazine advertising, 1940-1946. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 72, 216-227. Lowry, D. T., & Shidler, J. A. (1995). The sound bites, the biters, and the bitten: An analysis of network TV news bias in campaign '92. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 72, 33-44. McShane, S. L. (1995). Occupational, gender, and geographic representation of information sources in U.S. and Canadian business magazines. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 72, 190-204. Mustonen, A., & Pulkkinen, L. (1993). Aggression in television programs in Finland. Aggressive Behavior, 19, 175-183. Oliver, M. B. (1994). Portrayals of crime, race, and aggression in "reality-based" police shows: A content analysis. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 38, 179-192. Palmer, M. T., & Simmons, K. B. (1995). Communicating intentions through nonverbal behaviors: Conscious and nonconscious encoding of liking. Human Communication Research, 22, 128-160. Perreault, W., D., Jr., & Leigh, L. E. (1989). Reliability of nominal data based on qualitative judgments. Journal of Marketing Research, 26, 135-48. Poole, M. S., & Folger, J. P. (1981). Modes of observation and the validation of interaction analysis schemes. Small Group Behavior, 12, 477-493. Popping, R. (1988). On agreement indices for nominal data. In W. E. Saris & I. N. Gallhofer (Eds.), Sociometric research, Volume 1: Data collection and scaling (pp. 90-105). New York: St. Martin 's Press. Potter, W. J., & Ware, W. (1987). An analysis of the contexts of antisocial acts on prime-time television. Communication Research, 14, 664-686. Reel, B., W., & Thompson, T. L. (1994). A test of the effectiveness of strategies for talking about AIDS and condom use. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 22, 127-140. Rogan, R. G., & Hammer, M. R. (1994). Crisis negotiations: A preliminary investigation of facework in naturalistic conflict discourse. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 22, 216-231. Sabourin, T. C. (1995). The role of negative reciprocity in spouse abuse: A relational control analysis. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 23, 271-283. Scott, W. A. (1955). Reliability of content analysis: The case of nominal scale coding. Public Opinion Quarterly, 19, 321-25. Shidler, J. A., & Lowry, D. T. (1995). Network TV sex as a counter programming strategy during a sweeps period: An analysis of content and ratings. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 72, 147-157. Signorielli, N. (1990). Television 's mean and dangerous world: A continuation of the cultural indicators perspective. In N. Signorielli & M. Morgan (Eds.), Cultivation analysis: New directions in media effects research (pp. 85-106). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Signorielli, N., McLeod, D., & Healy, E. (1994). Gender stereotypes in MTV commercials: The beat goes on. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 38, 91-101. Smith, L. J. (1994). A content analysis of gender differences in children 's advertising. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 38, 323-337. Smith, S. L. (1997). The effective use of fear appeals in persuasive immunization: An analysis of national immunization intervention messages. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 25, 264-292. Stempel, G., H. III (1989). Content analysis. In G. H. Stempel III & B. H. Westley (Eds.), Research methods in mass communication (2nd ed., pp. 124-136). Englewood, NJ: Prentice Hall. Tapper, J., Thorson, E., & Black, D. (1994). Variations in music videos as a function of their musical genre. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 38, 103-113. Traub, R. E. (1994). Reliability for the social sciences: Theory and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Wimmer, R. D., & Dominick, J. R. (1991). Mass media research: An introduction. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Zhang, G-Q., & Kraus, S. (1995). Constructing public opinion and manipulating symbols: China 's press coverage of the student movement in 1989. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 72, 412-425. Downloaded by [University of Cape Town Libraries] at 22:30 16 March 2013

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    Advantages Of NIMS

    • 919 Words
    • 4 Pages

    The National Incident Management System (NIMS) was developed in the wake of nine eleven to resolve all issues within the response community about how any disaster should be handled. Do to the National Incident Management being created in the wake of nine eleven, citizens as a whole did not know what the National Incident Management was. Individuals thought NIMS was only used as a terrorism preparedness advantage (Bourne & Moffat, 2005). The National Incident Management System can be used in all major…

    • 919 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Relationship To NIMS

    • 113 Words
    • 1 Page

    all-important integration and inter-relationships among the mission areas of Prevention, Protection, Mitigation, Response, and Recovery. Relationship to NIMS the response protocols and structures described in the NRF align with NIMS. NIMS provides the incident management basis for the NRF and defines standard command and management structures” (n.d., 2010.) NIMS came up with a plan to have communities work together to prevent, protect, mitigate, respond to, and recover from the effects of a disastrous incident…

    • 113 Words
    • 1 Page
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Linear Nim

    • 336 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Problem statement. There’s this game called linear nim where 2 players who have 10 marks and so they have to figure out a strategy. Then who ever crosses out the last mark wins. You can also play it with 15 marks. But you have to figure what to do while playing this game and try to find patterns or strategies to win. Process. So what I did to attempt the problem is that I played the game a few times with my partner with the 10 marks and 15. So we can find some patterns and strategies that we can…

    • 336 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Language In Project Nim

    • 1827 Words
    • 8 Pages

    scream. He notices his mother’s grip begin to weaken. He is grabbed and carried away. He is Nim, a chimpanzee who has been just been taken from his mother, Carolyn. Nim was the seventh child Carolyn has had. He was removed from her for a research project led by Professor Herbe Terrace. This project featured a radical experiment aimed to teach a chimpanzee sign language. Although, the documentary Project Nim directed by James Marsh has an objective to present the progress and results of this experiment…

    • 1827 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    NIMS Case Study

    • 342 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Everybody being NIMS consistent is critical at each level of the crisis reaction field. Sanctuary put in more than 15 years with Homeland Security Department at the national level and the Incident Command System. We have to keep on teaching the whole crisis reaction field, in light of the fact that its influences crisis responders, as well as influences everybody that will be reacting on an extensive scale crisis. It is critical that we all talk the same dialect when we react under these conditions…

    • 342 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Exploring Project Nim

    • 857 Words
    • 4 Pages

    Nim was a chimpanzee who was born in the early 1970’s. He was bred for an experiment where he would live with a human family and try to learn sign language. The purpose of the study was to prove if language is inherent only in humans or if animals could somehow comprehend. Nim was raised in a human-like setting and taught sign language as if he were a human child. Nim was born in a lab facility center in Norman, Oklahoma. His mother, Caroline, was treated as a breeding machine—all her babies…

    • 857 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Project Nim Reflection

    • 642 Words
    • 3 Pages

    After watching the documentary film, Project Nim, I was not surprised at all to hear that many of the scientists involved in the experiment were not convinced that chimps had the ability to ever learn how to properly sign. Several years ago, I had watched a YouTube video that touched on experiments like this one where it was stated that chimps, much like young human children, do not have the ability to understand that there are multiple points of view for the things that go on around them - otherwise…

    • 642 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    ICS And NIMS Analysis

    • 931 Words
    • 4 Pages

    corporations, it is necessary to employ common terminology to ensure team cohesion and communication. ICS and NIMS has a specific language set that helps bring consistency to all responders. These terms are applied to all chains of command and resources. The precise guidelines of these programs increase cooperation and ease the transfer between care. Another feature of ICS and NIMS is the use of plain language. Although this point may seem trivial, plain language is imperative for communication…

    • 931 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Imp Linear Nim Pow

    • 937 Words
    • 4 Pages

    9/12/10 IMP POW Linear Nim In this POW, we had to play a game called Linear Nim. In this game, we drew 10 lines on a paper, and we had to take turns crossing out 1, 2, or 3 of the marks. The person that crossed out the last mark was the winner. The first task of this POW was to find a winning strategy for this game. After we found this out, we were supposed to make variations to the game, for instance starting with more or less marks, or allowing a player to cross out more or less marks. We were…

    • 937 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Harry Potter

    • 1605 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Writing 325 Cindy Wu Instructor: Lolita Hernandez The Popularization of Harry Potter Series The Harry Potter series, which is written by JK Rowling, is a miracle of literary history that it is well known in countries with various cultural backgrounds all over the world. It has been translated into seventy languages and sold over four hundred million copies in two hundred countries. The success of the Harry Potter series results in a success of its industry, including films, video games, toys…

    • 1605 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Powerful Essays