Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Research Paper
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a widespread disorder that affects certain individuals psychologically, behaviorally, and emotionally following the experience of a traumatic event (Lee et al., 2005, p. 135). However, because of inconsistencies regarding the percentage of individuals who experience PTSD and the percentage of individuals who subsequently develop PTSD, researchers hypothesize that both biological and environmental factors contribute to the development of PTSD (Wolf et al. 2010, p. 328). In order gain a better understanding of this disorder and to discover contributing and predicative factors which contribute to the development of PTSD, this paper analyses the historical context and prevalence of PTSD, the biological and environmental contributing factors, and types of intervention used to mediate the effects of PTSD. In conclusion, the paper advocates the interrelated nature of environmental and biological influences on the development of PTSD and suggests future areas of research which may increase an interventionists ability to assist an individual suffering from PTSD.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a severe anxiety disorder that may occur after an individual has experienced one or more intense or traumatic experiences (Friedman, 2007). These experiences may include anything that causes an individual to experience trauma such as combat exposure, sexual assault, physical abuse, or a life-threatening situation (Gersons & Carlier, 1992). However, not all individuals who are exposed to traumatic level of stress develop PTSD which suggests that some individuals may be more susceptible to the disorder than others (Lee et al., 2005, p. 135). Consequently, research regarding PTSD typically involves an examination of both environmental and biological factors which may contribute to the development of PTSD. Most researchers agree that while PTSD may partially arise from an individual’s genetic
References: Bernat, J. A., Ronfeldt, H. M., Calhoun, K. S., & Arias, I. (1998). Prevalence of traumatic events and peritraumatic predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms in Breslau, N., Kessler, R. C., Chilcoat, H. D., Schultz, L. R., Davis, G. C., & Andreski, P. (1998) Chisholm, B., Freeman, D., & Cooke, A. (2006). Identifying potential predictors of traumatic reactions to psychotic episodes. The British Journal of Clinical Psychology / The British Psychological Society, 45(4), 545-559. Davis, L Dekel, S., Mandel, C., & Solomon, Z. (2011). Shared and unique predictors of post- traumatic growth and distress. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67(3), 241-252. Deep-Soboslay, A., Martin, C posttraumatic stress symptoms among 3,271 civilian survivors of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the world trade center. American Journal of Epidemiology, 173(3), 271-281. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwq372 Dunmore, E., Clark, D First, M., Frances, A., & Pincus, H. (2002). DSM-IV-TR Handbook of differential diagnosis Flouri, E. (2005). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): What we have learned and what we still have not found out. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20(4), 373-37. doi:10.1177/0886260504267549 Friedman, M Gersons, B., & Carlier, I. (1992). Post-traumatic stress disorder: the history of a recent concept. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 742-748. Hales, R., & Zatzick, D. (1997). What is PTSD? The American Journal of Psychiatry: Editorial, 154(2), 143-145. Jacobs, B. L. (1991). Serotonin and behavior: Emphasis on motor control. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 52, 17-23. Kessler, R Kessler, R. C., Sonnega, A., Bromet, E., Hughes, M., & Nelson, C. B. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 1048–1060. McPherson-Sexton, M. S., & Hostetler, B. (2009). How to respond to the crisis victim with PTSD symptoms: An intervener 's guide. Journal of Police Crisis Negotiations, 9, 61-66. Solomon, Z., Gelkopf, M., & Bleich, A. (2005). Is terror gender-blind? Gender differences in reaction to terror events. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40, 947–954. Southwick, S. M., Bremner, D., Krystal, J. H., & Charney, D. S. (1994). Psychobiologic research in post-traumtic stress disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 17(2), 251-264. Summerfield, D Vecchi, G. (2009). Conflict and crisis communication: Methods of crisis intervention and stress management. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 12 (4), 54-64. Wolf, E. J., Miller, M. W., Lyons, M. J., Krueger, R. F., Tsuang, M. T., & Koenen, K. C. (2010). Posttraumatic stress disorder and the genetic structure of comorbidity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119(2), 320-330. doi:10.1037/a0019035