With relevant examples and illustrations, discuss some of the popular approaches to educational planning in developing countries.
Educational planning is a worldwide practice found in both developing and developed countries. The developing countries and indeed all countries have placed a premium on education because of the persistent belief that formal education holds the key to national development and economic growth. In the light of this, the modern conception of educational planning has attracted specialists from many disciplines with each of them tending to see educational planning differently. In view of this attraction, the traditional approach to educational planning could no longer hold sway. In an attempt to find a most suitable approach to educational planning, different models have been developed by scholars. These include the social demand approach, the manpower approach, the cost-benefit approach and other remerging models. The choice of model to adopt is usually predicated on the peculiarities and other prevailing factors in a country. Generally however, scholars have tried to classify approaches to educational planning based on the level of development of a country. And this probably explains why some are called developing countries and others are developed countries.
A thorough understanding of these approaches however requires some background information or knowledge. In doing, this we shall adopt the definition of the concept of educational planning as provided by Coombs (1970), identify key planning questions, trace the history of modern approaches to educational planning, and bring out most important planning issues in developing countries with example and illustrations.
Because of the ubiquitous nature of education and educational planning, several scholars have offered different definitions. For example, Coombs (1970) in a UNESCO Publication titled “What is Educational Planning “. says that: “Educational Planning, in its broadest generic sense, is the application of rational systematic analysis to the process of educational development with the aim of making education more effective and efficient in responding to the needs and goals of its students and society “. Arising from this concept of educational planning are a succession of interdependent actions namely: i. Clarification of educational objectives
ii. Diagnosis of present conditions and recent trends
iii. Identification and assessment of alternatives
iv. Translation of plans into action and
v. Evaluation and adjustment.
This analytical process to educational planning entails preparing and subsequently evaluating a set of decisions or future actions aimed at achieving specific set of goals. Educational planning therefore is a fundamentally technical activity related to decision making process. Its purpose in the context of national educational programme and overall developmental objectives is to assess the implications of alternative sets of policy and thereby help decision makers choose that set which is most appropriate to the specified objectives. Events in the recent years have witnessed an increasing emphasis on the need to design educational policy in relation to overall set of objectives for economic and social development. Thus in addition to being a fundamental end in itself, education is now also viewed as an important means or instrument for increasing a nation’s economic and social welfare. This relationship makes it necessary to consider a variety of factors that previously may have appeared irrelevant.
The most important of this is to evaluate whether the size of structure of the educational system is appropriate from the perspective of national development objectives – or conversely to determine the educational capacity that will be required to permit a nation to reach its development targets. The second important characteristic of a new interest in...
Bibliography: Blaug, M. (1967). Approaches to Educational Planning. The Economic Journal Vol. 77, No 306 (June 1967) 77 262-287,
Coombs, P.H. (1970). What is educational planning?. UNESCO: International Institute for Educational Planning, Paris. http://www.unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0007/000766/07607leo.pdf
Fakoya, F. O. Approaches to Educational Planning,
Oguntoye, A.O. and Alani, R.A. (1998): Planning Education in Nigeria: Theory and Practice. Kinsbond Inv. Ltd., Ilaro.
Isave, S. G. (2011): Approaches to Educational Planning [Power Point Slides]
Woodhall, M. (1992). Cost-Benefit Analysis in Educational Planning, UNESCO: International Institute for Educational Planning, Paris. http://www.unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0007/000757/07575leo.pdf
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