The Need for Change ■ Country Overview
Egypt has been the host of undoubtedly the oldest and most diverse civilizations in human history. Its people are a complex amalgam of cultures, religions and age-old traditions, some of them traceable to the pharaonic times. Yet, its estimated total population of 83 million people have suffered tremendously from repeated foreign occupations and autocratic governments. Today, Egypt is considered a lower middle income country, with a Gross National Income (GNI) per capita of $2,440 in 2010 and a Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty line (% of population) of 22% in 2008. Ranked 112 in human development index rank, out of 177 countries, it has an adult (15+) literacy rate of 71.4%.
With an estimated total life expectancy at birth of 72.3 years in 2008 and an infant mortality rate of 19 per 1000 live births. The general health profile of the Egyptian population is characterized by considerable discrepancies and lack of equality both in access to care and quality of services.
■ Current Healthcare Infrastructure
Egypt’s healthcare system is a very pluralistic one. It relies on many sources of funding with healthcare expenditure up to 72% of total health spending incurred by households from 60% in 2007-2008. The National Health Accounts (NHA) for the fiscal year 2007/08 estimate that Egypt spent 42.5 billion Egyptian Pounds (EGP) on healthcare, representing 4.75% of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP). This translates to a per capita health spending of 566.4 EGP.
Financing of healthcare is characterized by mutually exclusive tracts (silos) and a multitude in sources of financing, making the coordination and effective management of the healthcare sector a heavy burden across the public and private funders and providers.
The healthcare providers’ market is even more fragmented: A network of in-patient and out-patient facilities are owned by the Ministry of Health (MOH) in addition