A council of nobles mainly governed city-states. Also an assembly of citizens governed political affairs. Later kings arouse to claim themselves as the military leaders and the highest priest in that city-state. The king was who represented the city-state deity. The Sumerians also believed that most of the land belonged to the city-states god or goddess. The king enforced laws and set penalties for wrong doers. Although there was some type of punishment, it wasn't severe-meaning any physical injury to the body, they were only fined. This proves that Sumer wasn't just monarchy but also theocracy government. City-states began to struggle for power among them causing, some city-states dominated certain areas for centuries. Those named the highest, the king and nobles, consisted in the center of the city. Around them were the merchants, then the farmers, and on the most outer wall were the peasants. When war would arrive the peasants would arrive in the inner wall for protection.
There were many city-states in the time period of Sumer. The main important city-states of Sumer were Eridu, Kish, Uruk, Ur, Sippar, Nippur, Adab, Umma, Lagash, Larsa, Eshunna, Shaduppum, Isin, Jemdet Nasr, and Shurupak. "Such cities as Kish, Ur, Erech, Lagash, and Larsa, dominated the region for several centuries, combining prowess with economic dominance to better their neighbors." Ur was a major city for commerce and Trade. Nippur was also known for something like this, but it was known for becoming the cultural and religious center of Sumer because of the temple there.
Around 2800 B.C. flourished Etana, the king Enmebasagesi of the city state of Kish. He was a famous ruler among his people, he was known as the "man who stabilized the land." The king had constructed the temple of Enlil at Nippur. Around 2650 B.C. Enmebasagesi gave his kingship to his son Agga. Soon after he was overrun by the king of Ur and had dieded around that time. Near that time another ruler arose named...
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