In Julie Ann McMullin’s book “Age, Gender and Work”, McMullin examines how women and older workers are disproportionally represented in the IT labour force. In McMullin’s book, she writes that most of the IT firms that participates in the WANE study, have overwhelming numerical superiority by younger males. A large number of IT firms, have developed different forms of gender regimes and ageism inequalities, because of the overwhelming numerical superiority of younger male employees. Masculinist gender regime is the regular, patterned gender arrangements. The Regime includes patterned discrepancies in rewards and privileges connected to gender. Masculinist gender regimes, dictate almost every aspect of workplace culture and workplace interaction in IT firms. The composition of young, white, educated males definitely creates a certain youthful and playful culture in an IT firm. In “Age, Gender and Work”, McMullin suggests that most IT firms have workplace cultures “geared towards male interests and activities.” (McMullin 2012, 40). In these male dominant firms, co-workers relate with each other informally and often share common practices, traditions, attitudes and values. The workplace culture, created by the predominant presence of younger men tends to have an effect on how many women, if any, are employed in an IT firm. The women employed by these firms, are forced to adapt to the culture of the workplace, “Where individual women occupy key managerial or technical roles, they accommodated, rather than challenged, the dominant ethos, positioning themselves as “one of the boys.” (McMullin 2012, 40). The composition of predominantly younger males in IT firms, also contribute to ageism in the workplace. Younger male employees, often view older workers as incompetent, and not adaptable in regards to dealing with technology. Younger employees also believe that because they grew up with computers, knowledge about utilizing a computer comes more naturally to younger workers, than older workers, “I think definitely the IT industry is populated by younger people…when you grow up using computers, it’s only natural that you look for a job that uses computers.”(5511110,man,mid-twenties, United states). Question 4)
The social exclusion of different groups in Canada, can affect the health and well-being of the excluded group. Groups can be excluded legally by being “denied participation in civil affairs as a result of legal sanction or other institutional mechanisms.” (Raphael 2012, 100). Another form of exclusion is the denial of social goods like education and healthcare. The third type of social exclusion is the exclusion from social production, which denies marginalized groups opportunities to participate in social activities. Lastly, economic exclusion denies certain groups access to economic opportunities. These four types of social exclusion can lead to different health issues. If a member of a certain group cannot afford to pay medical bills and the government does not provide assistance, the health of that member will deteriorate overtime. If a member is also denied access to education and is from a poor background, then that person lacks the opportunity to ever elevate their social status, thus making it difficult to avoid health issues related to stress. When new immigrants, who are part of a visible minority group, arrive in Canada, they commonly undergo financial difficulty because of the social structure, “New immigrants of colour- people who have recently arrived in Canada, show particularly pronounced increases in poverty.” (Raphael 2012, 100). Income difficulty subjects new Canadians to unfavourable social environments. New residents are forced to live in unsafe neighbourhoods because of financial restrictions, “The pattern of increasing economic and racial concentration in Canadian urban areas is another cause for concern.” (Raphael 2012,112). Living in unsafe communities can lead to health and mental...
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