Topic 2: Political Theory: Pluralism, Corporatism and Public Choice Pluralism is a political theory that related to the acknowledgement for diversification that exist in society. Everyone has different views and appreciation for different value in life. Pluralism is a sign of theoretical standpoint on state ad power as well as resources. It depends on how it will be distributed in democratic state like United States of America (USA). Two famous name in mentioned by Manley (1983) in his article are Robert A. Dahl and Charles E. Lindblom. Pluralism in political system is open to multiple interests of different group in society. All (professional associations, environmentalist, business and financial lobbies etc) are governing the United States and influence laws and policymaking in the state. It thus creates different values on viewing policy and laws. For example what highly value by a person is valued differently by others. In addition, this stand made view pluralism as not absolute. Something has to be trade-off to get one thing to be regarded as a decision to benefit all. We made up by different theories and values that we inculcated and practice in our life. No sunmum bonum (highest good) shall replace the other goods as popularized by Kant (Emannuel Kant). To make this thing clear as an example, Galston (2002) in his book used situation of making decision in White House in USA where different representatives from different department came out with different proposal in regarding to domestic policy. Author at that time acted as on behalf of President on a proportion of domestic policy faced difficulty to reject any of the proposals, as it is heterogeneous and may have strength point for different situation for domestic policy (Galston, 2002). It is a matter that there is no absolute point that we can rank order any opinion/good/value that have in society. That is what liberal politics were doing for govern the state. No absolute term to decide what is good some may good and benefit all (Galston, 2002; Lassman, No date). All 6 characteristics of pluralism especially in democratic state like USA to be mentioned in this report is discussed by Reynolds (1999) as also mentioned by Dahl (Manley, 1983). In America, government is not dominated by one single elite but by small multiple group made up by different influence and field like agriculture and banking. Second is the group is politically independent from each other. They are free to run business and how well they perform is depends on their skill and rallying political resources.
Third is healthy competition and high degree of loyalty between groups. It is because one group member is may belongs to other group or association. This overlapping membership may reduce conflicts between group as their members will keep their group/association is conflict-free. Fouth is openness of the system in terms of membership and formation of new group/association. Anyone can be a member to any groups and un-used resources may be used by people to form new groups. For example, collecting signature on a petition is mobilized resource so that they may form group to influence political situation in the state. Fifth is masses is important source for political situation that may change party to win or loss in vote. Last but not least is “rule of game” of democracy in which everyone voices shall be heard and every vote is important for policy and law-making (Reynolds, 1999). Political Theory: Corporatism Corporatism is a theory and practice of organizing society into “corporations” subordinate to the state. According to corporatist theory, workers and employers would be ordered into industrial and specialized corporations serving as organs of political representation and controlling largely the persons and activities within their authority. However, as the “corporate state” was put into effect in fascist Italy between World Wars I and II, it reflected the will of the country’s...
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