* It is the systematic study of the state in all its elements, aspects and relationships. * The term POLITICAL is taken from the Greek word POLIS meaning, city-state. * SCIENCE is derived from Latin word SCIRE which means “to know” and CIENCIA which means “knowledge” or “study” * The systematic study of and reflection upon politics. Politics usually describes the processes by which people and institutions exercise and resist power. Political processes are used to formulate policies, influence individuals and institutions, and organize societies. * Many political scientists study how governments use politics. But political scientists also study politics in other contexts, such as how politics affects the economy, how ordinary people think and act in relation to politics, and how politics influences organizations outside of government. * The emphasis upon government and power distinguishes political science from other social sciences, although political scientists share an interest with economists in studying relations between the government and economy, and with sociologists in considering relations between social structures in general and political structures in particular. * Political scientists attempt to explain and understand recurrent patterns in politics rather than specific political events.
THE IMPORTANCE OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
* Political science is important because politics is important. * All peoples’ lives are affected in many ways by what governments do or choose not to do, and by the power structures that exist in society. * All peoples’ lives are affected in many ways by what governments do or choose not to do, and by the power structures that exist in society. * Political scientists usually influence the world in more indirect ways: by educating citizens and political leaders, by contributing to debates on political issues, and by encouraging different ways of looking at the world * The study of political science is motivated by the need to understand the sources and consequences of political stability and revolution, of repression and liberty, of equality and inequality, of war and peace, of democracy and dictatorship. * The study of political science suggests that the world of politics is complex and cannot be reorganized by simple ideological schemes without unintended consequences.
FIELDS IN POLITICAL SCIENCE
* Comparative Politics.
* International Relations
* Political Theory
* Public Administration
* Public Policy
* Political Behavior
* Comparative politics involves study of the politics of different countries. * For example, political scientists have found many similarities between the transitions from authoritarian rule to democracy in Latin America and Eastern Europe in the 1980s and 1990s. International Relations
* International relations is the study of the international system, which involves interactions between nations, international organizations, and multinational corporations. * The two traditional approaches used by political scientists in the study of international relations are realism and liberalism (which is not the same as liberalism as a political ideology). * Realism emphasizes the danger of the international system, where war is always a possibility and the only source of order is the balance of power. * Liberalism is more idealistic and hopeful, emphasizing the problem-solving abilities of international institutions such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization Political Theory
* involves the study of philosophical thought about politics from ancient Greece to the present; the interpretation and development of concepts such as freedom, democracy, human rights, justice, and power; the development of models for government, such as participatory democracy or constitutional systems; * Political theory overlaps law, philosophy,...
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