Political, economic and legal aspects in European integration issues.
The first step in post-war integration was the European Coal and Steel Community (EC&SC), the treaty signed in Paris on 18th April 1951 (entered into force on 23 July 1952. It expired in 2002. Another two fundamental treaties were signed in Rome in 1957 by the six original member states in order to form the European Economic Community - EEC and EURATOM Treaty (European Atomic Energy Community). These treaties, together with the very first one - European Coal and Steel Community- EC&SC, represented both the strong movement at that time in Europe towards more tense international cooperation and desire to create a “common market”. And the last but not the least is Lisbon Treaty which is an international agreement which amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union . The Lisbon Treaty was signed by the EU member states on 13 December 2007, and entered into force on 1 December 2009. It amends the Maastricht Treaty and the Treaty establishing the European Community (TEC; also known as the Treaty of Rome). In this process, the Rome Treaty was renamed to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). Other important treaties:
Merger Treaty of 8 April 1965,
Single European Act of 17 February 1986,
Treaty on the European Union (TEU) of 7 February 1992,
Amsterdam Treaty of 2 October 1997, and
Nice Treaty of 26 February 2001. 1
Two major political issues for the EU are European integration and enlargement. The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 28 member states. There have been seven enlargements, with the largest occurring on May 1, 2004, when 10 new member states joined, followed by Bulgaria and Romania on January 1, 2007, and Croation on July 1, 2013. 23 July 1952; The Treaty of Paris entered into force, establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). Founding members were the Benelux countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg), France, Italy, and West Germany. 1 January 1958; The Treaty of Rome entered into force, establishing the European Economic Community (EEC), which later becomes the European Community (EC). 5 July 1962; Algeria gains independence from France and leaves the EEC. 1 January 1973 (First Enlargement); Denmark, Ireland, and the United Kingdom accede to the EC (Norway signed the treaty but failed to ratify due to a negative opinion in a national referendum on accession). 1 January 1981 (Second Enlargement); Greece accedes to the EC. 1985; Granted home rule by Denmark six years earlier, Greenland decides to leave the EC following a referendum. (See member state territories). 1 January 1986 (Third Enlargement); Portugal and Spain accede to the EC. 3 October 1990; East Germany and West Germany reunify (see German reunification), which increased the territory of the EC without changing the number of member states. 1 November 1993; The Maastricht Treaty takes effect, formally establishing the European Union. 1 January 1995 (Fourth Enlargement) — Austria, Finland, and Sweden, accede to the EU. 1 May 2004 (Fifth Enlargement, part I); Comprising the largest number of countries ever admitted at one time, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia accede to the EU at a ceremony in Dublin. 1 January 2007 (Fifth Enlargement, part II); Bulgaria and Romania join. 10 October 2010, The Caribbean islands of Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius become part of the Netherlands as special municipalities. 1 January 2012 Saint Barhelemy joins
31 July 2013 Croatia joins.2(Seventh Enlargement)
The fifth enlargement, considering the number of new members, was celebrated by almost all countries of the union with the...
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