After the agenda has been set and a community recognizes a problem, a policy must be formulated to address the issue. A very important part to policy formulation is defining what the problem truly is. This is true for any model in policy formulation. For example, one may recognize excessive smoke in the air and define smoke as a problem. In reality, the true problem is the fire causing the smoke. It is easier to deal with the symptoms (smoke) rather than the root of the problem (fire). The symptoms call for a quick fix and bringing better political return for the policy. It takes much more time and effort to investigate the root of a problem. There are also people who have a long history associated with certain issues. They are called policy entrepreneurs. Policy entrepreneurs are individuals, groups, organizations, or corporations that have earned an expert reputation in a subject area and drive policy formulation. Through this perceived expertise, we turn to them to define a problem or give an opinion on a solution. A policy entrepreneur can be anyone, which shows that policy formulation is not always driven by the elite; in this manner, anyone can sway legislation. It is important to note that policy entrepreneurs are not always reliable experts, but simply may have a reputation of being associated with a subject based on beliefs and appearance. These individuals or groups can choose to volunteer their services or sell their services. When volunteering, the groups lend their reputation to policy they favor. When their services are bought, the groups can be easily manipulated and swayed to promote a policy they do not necessarily agree with. For example, Mothers Against Drunk Driving would be consulted when drunk driving laws are being debated. Any labor union would have expertise on policies regarding fair employment, wages, and such. Government agencies can also be policy entrepreneurs. When the Center for Disease
Cited: Nelson, John. Arizona Department of State. Office of the Secretary of State. SENATE CONCURRENT RESOLUTION 1001 A CONCURRENT RESOLUTION PROPOSING AN AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION OF ARIZONA; AMENDING ARTICLE X, CONSTITUTION OF ARIZONA, BY ADDING SECTION 12; RELATING TO STATE TRUST LANDS. Phoenix: , 2012. Web. . Simon, Ted. Vote 2012: Prop 119 (State Trust Lands). Arizona Horizon Vote 2012. 2012. Video. Public Broadcasting ServiceWeb. 24 Oct 2012. .