Poetry in Literary Studies

Topics: Poetry, Poetic form, Meter Pages: 41 (15277 words) Published: June 23, 2013
Basics of English Studies: An introductory course for students of literary studies in English.

4. Poetry
Table of Contents: 4.1. What Is Poetry? ................................................................................... 142 4.1.1. Outward Indications .......................................................................... 142 4.2. Types of Poetry ................................................................................... 144 4.2.1. Lyric Poetry ......................................................................................... 144 4.2.2. Narrative Poetry ................................................................................. 145 4.2.3. Descriptive and Didactic Poetry ...................................................... 146 4.3. Prosodic Features: Metre and Rhythm ........................................ 146 4.3.1. Metre .................................................................................................... 146 4.3.1.1. Accentual Metre .............................................................................. 147 4.3.1.2. Syllabic Metre .................................................................................. 148 4.3.1.3. Accentual-Syllabic Metre ................................................................ 149 SO WHAT? ...................................................................................................... 151 4.3.1.4. Free Verse ........................................................................................ 152 4.3.1.5. Maximisation Principle and Metrical Grid .................................. 152 4.3.1.6. Metrical Deviation .......................................................................... 153 4.3.1.7. Substitutions .................................................................................... 153 4.3.1.8. Recitation ......................................................................................... 154 SO WHAT? ...................................................................................................... 154 4.3.2. Rhythm ................................................................................................ 156 4.3.2.1. Pauses at the End of Lines ............................................................ 156 SO WHAT? ...................................................................................................... 158 4.3.2.2. Pauses within Lines ......................................................................... 158 4.3.2.3. Elisions and Expansions ................................................................ 158 4.3.2.4. Vowel Length and Consonant Clusters ....................................... 159 4.3.2.5. Modulation ....................................................................................... 161 4.4. Prosodic Features: Sound Patterns ............................................... 162 4.4.1. Rhyme .................................................................................................. 162 4.4.2. Alliteration, Assonance, Onomatopoeia ......................................... 164 SO WHAT? ...................................................................................................... 164 4.5. Verse Forms and Stanza Forms ..................................................... 165 SO WHAT? ..................................................................................................... 172 4.6. Form and Meaning in Poetry ......................................................... 173 Bibliography: Poetry ................................................................................. 175

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4. Poetry
4.1. What is Poetry?
To ask ‘What is poetry?’ is very much like asking ‘What is literature?’ and in fact the answers to both these questions overlap: Poetry is perceived as fictional, it uses specialised language, in many cases it lacks a pragmatic function, it is also ambiguous (see...

References: for primary texts have been abbreviated. Most of the poems quoted can be found in standard anthologies such as the Norton Anthology of Poetry or The New Oxford Book of English Verse. In addition, the following have been used: Butler, Samuel. 1761 [1663-64]. Hudibras: In Three Parts: Written in the Time of the Late Wars. London: D. Browne etc. Cowper, William. 1968. Poetry and Prose. Ed. Brian Spiller. London: Rupert Hart-Davis. Eliot, T.S. 1971. The Complete Poems and Plays: 1909-1950. New York: Harcourt Brace & World. Gilbert, W.S. and 1994. The Savoy Operas. Hertfordshire: Wordsworth. Housman, A.E. 1898. A Shropshire Lad. London: Richards Press. Lonsdale, Roger, ed. 1987. The New Oxford Book of Eighteenth-Century Verse. Oxford: OUP. Pope, Alexander. 1965. The Poems. Ed. John Butt. London: Methuen. Primary Texts: Quintilian. Institutia Oratorio.1966-69. Trans. H.E. Butler. London: Heinemann. Scott, Walter. 1904. Poetical Works. Ed. J. Logie Robertson. London: Henry Frowde. Spenser, Edmund. 1977 [1596]. The Faerie Queene. Ed. A.C. Hamilton. London: Longman. Secondary Sources: Attridge, Derek. 2000 [1995]. Poetic Rhythm: An Introduction. Cambridge: CUP. Bode, Christoph. 2001. Einführung in die Lyrikanalyse. Trier: WVT. Braak, Ivo. 2001. Poetik in Stichworten: Literaturwissenschaftliche Grundbegriffe: Eine Einführung. Eighth rev. ed. Berlin: Borntraeger. Brooks, Cleanth and Robert Penn Warren. 1946. Understanding Poetry: An Anthology for College Students. New York: Holt. Brooks, Cleanth. 1966. The Well Wrought Urn: Studies in the Structure of Poetry. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World. Burdorf, Dieter. 1997. Einführung in die Gedichtanalyse. Second rev. ed. Stuttgart: Metzler. Chatman, Seymour. 1965. A Theory of Meter. The Hague: Mouton. Chatman, Seymour. 1968. An Introduction to the Language of Poetry. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Frank, Horst Joachim. 1993. Wie interpretiere ich ein Gedicht?: Eine methodische Anleitung. Second ed. Tübingen: Francke. Fussell, Paul Jr. 1967. Poetic Meter and Poetic Form. New York: Random House. Haefner, Gerhard. 1997. Englische Lyrik vom zweiten Weltkrieg bis zur Gegenwart: Konzepte, Themen, Strukturen. Heidelberg: Winter. Haverkamp, Anselm, ed. 1996. Theorie der Metapher. Second ed. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Hawkes, Terence. 1980. Metaphor. Repr. London: Methuen. Hobsbaum, Philip. 1996. Metre, Rhyme and Verse Form. London: Routledge.
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Hollander, John. 2000. Rhyme’s Reason: A Guide to English Verse. New Haven: Yale. Hühn, Peter. 1995. Geschichte der englischen Lyrik. 2 vols. Tübingen: Francke. Jones, Robert T. 1986. Studying Poetry: An Introduction. London: Arnold. Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson. 1992. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. Lakoff, George and Mark Turner. 1989. More Than Cool Reason: A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. Leech, Geoffrey. 1969. A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry. London: Longman. Ludwig, Hans-Werner. 1990. Arbeitsbuch Lyrikanalyse. Tübingen: Narr. Meller, Horst. 1985. Zum Verstehen englischer Gedichte. München: Fink. Miller, Ruth and Robert A. Greenberg. 1993. Poetry: An Introduction. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Müller-Zettelmann, Eva. 2000. Lyrik und Metalyrik: Theorie einer Gattung und ihrer Selbstbespiegelung anhand von Beispielen aus der englischen und deutschsprachigen Dichtkunst. Heidelberg: Winter. Plett, Heinrich F. 1991. Einführung in die rhetorische Textanalyse. Hamburg: Helmut Buske. Plett, Heinrich F. 2000. Systematische Rhetorik: Konzepte und Analysen. München : Fink. Preminger, Alex and T.V.F. Brogan, eds. 1994. The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton UP. Richards, I.A. 1929. Practical Criticism: A Study of Literary Judgment. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Roberts, Philip Davies. 1988. How Poetry Works. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Schipper, Jakob. 1985. Grundriß der englischen Metrik. Wien: Braumüller. Sorg, Bernhard. 1999. Lyrik interpretieren: Eine Einführung. Berlin: Erich Schmidt. Stallworthy. Jon. 1996. “Versification.” The Norton Anthology of Poetry. Eds. Margaret Ferguson et al. Third ed. New York: Norton: lxi – lxxx. Steele, Timothy.1999. All the Fun’s in How You Say a Thing: An Explanation of Meter and Versification. Athens, GA: Ohio University Press. Tynjanov, Jurji N. 1977. Das Problem der Verssprache: Zur Semantik des poetischen Texts. München: Fink.
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