Chapter 10-18“The greater a man’s talents, the greater his power to lead astray” Haley page122.-disscuss the ironyIn the brave new world people believe that everyone belongs to someone else. They are born with different caste and appointed jobs. They do not have to or cannot think and worry about anything, because the controllers need absolute submit to their orders. In their formats of human, human should not have talents and a brain to think. In this case, Bernard’s belief, habits, goals and curiosities have brought tension to the controllers. They think that Bernard’s “talents” will lead him or the community to a new theory of life, which is forbidden in the new world. This sentence is a verbal irony, director use the word “astray” to show that man’s talents is a noxious thing to have, which could lead people to corruption. But the truth is that the greater a man’s talents, the greater his power to lead to the understanding of life. (10.7) Cult of personality. John the Savage
Who takes advantage?
Cult of personality means intense devotion to a particular person. This arise when an individual creates heroic, at times worship images, to idealized an idea or person. John reads Shakespeare whenever he feels upset or confused. During his time at the Reservation Shakespeare’s literature and Linda’s previous life in civilized society have always been John’s only sources of information about Brave New World (Chapter 8, page 131). When John started living at the Brave New World whenever Linda is busy or is permanently under the influence of soma, he didn’t have anyone to go to for questions so he had no choice but to turn to Shakespeare to explain his surroundings. John is a passionate human who uses Shakespeare as his emotional guide. For example, when he went to watch a movie with Lenina and he thought the film was horrible, “Five minutes later he was back in his room. From its hiding place he took out his mouse-nibbled volume, turned with religious care its stained and crumbled pages, and began to read Othello,” chapter 11, page 171. Unfortunately, John’s taste for Shakespeare suggests that John will not fit into normal society. His emotional nature will forever alienate him from all existing cultures. Everyone was curious about John Savage and his social schedule, so Bernard, his accredited guardian, found himself “for the first time in his life, treated not merely normally, but as a person of outstanding importance,” (chapter 11, page 156). Bernard takes advantage of his fame; however, he foolishly criticizes society and even goes far as to lecture Mustapha Mond in a letter on ways that society could improve (chapter 11, page 158). The letter amuses and angers Mond, “The idea of this creature solemnly lecturing him about the social order was really too grotesque (p.159).” Find five Shakespearean quotes
Identify and significance
“O brave new world”(Pg121,184)
Identify:From “The Tempest” Act 5 Scene 1,(Miranda speaks this line while he reaches the new place) Significance:First time John says this quote is full of his hope towards the new world(“O brave new world that has such people in it.Let’s start at once.”)(Pg121),later on,this quote becomes the motivation for John fight against the new world(“Now,suddenly,they trumpeted a call to arms.”)(Pg184).Here is a obvious irony.However,to compare John with Miranda,they both relate to this quote while they encounter something they have not seen before ,showing John just like Miranda is far from civilization society;or we can say John chooses to be far because he is unable to accept the idea of the new world.In John’s eyes,he can not understand why the new world makes so many mistakes bravely;like setting the life for people,society without conscience,people take drug for escape unpleasantness…… “O, she doth teach the torches to burn bright! It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night Like a rich jewel in an Ethiop’s ear;Beauty too rich for use,for earth too dear…”(Pg155) Identify:From “Romeo and Juliet” Act 1 Scene 5,(This is how Romeo describes Juliet while he first sees Juliet) Significance: This quote shows Lenina strongly attracts John when he does not really understand Lenina’s reality;just like while Romeo says this quote,he does not know the real identity of Juliet.However,John does not want to “break her virgin knot before all sanctimonious ceremonies may with full and holy rite…”(Pg168 line7)But Lenina does not care about what John wanted and she keeps seducing John;finally,John’s love to Lenina turn into hate and John calls Lenina as “Damned whore”.(Pg170) This quote is the condition for this situational irony.To contrast “Damned whore” with this beautiful quote,illustrating that even love is unable to stop John’s hatred towards the new world;how much hatred for a man to give up love？ “Nay ,but to live
In the rank sweat of an enseamed bed,
Stew’d in corruption,honeying and making love
Over the nasty sty…”(Pg113)
Identify:From “Hamlet” Act 3 scene 4,(This is the description from Hamlet while he knows his mother sleeps with his uncle) Significance:John and Hamlet both have a mother who sleep with other men,therefore John has the same feeling as Hamlet’s;John uses Hamlet’s words to express his own feeling towards his mother. This is first shakespeare’s quote John ever read and it leads to “he hated Pope more and more”(Pg114),foreshadowing John is going to be deeply influenced by Shakespeare so that resist the idea of the new world.Also this quote shows John love his mother very much just like Hamlet does,they both do not want to share the love of their mothers with someone else. “When he is drunk asleep,or in his rage
Or in the incestuous pleasure of his bed…”(Pg115)
Identify:From “Hamlet” Act 3 Scene 3,(Hamlet is looking for a chance to kill his uncle) Significance:Hamlet speaks this quote while he is planning the best opportunity for murdering his uncle.However,John also wants to kill Pope because of deeply effect of Hamlet,and he performs actual action that kill Pope “when he is drunk asleep”.Before John read “Hamlet” ,“he had never really hated Pope”(Pg114) ,showing Shakespeare’s work is expanding his emotions.However, John follows play to act,illustrating he is controlled by Shakespeare’s ideas and he is not free on reservation. “Her eyes, her hair, her cheek, her gait, her voice;
Handlest in thy discourse O! That her hand,
In whose comparison all whites are ink
Writing their own reproach; to whose soft seizure
The cygnet's down is harsh...”
Identify:From Romeo and Juliet
John goes to the house where Bernard and Lenina are staying on the Reservation. Since it is silent, he fears that they have already left. He breaks a window and enters the house. He looks around, opens Lenina's suitcase, plays with her perfume and clothing, and finally finds Lenina sleeping on her bed. He breathes in her scent and feels stunned by her beauty (chapter 9, page 144). When John saw Lenina's beauty the quotes/lines from Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, expressing Juliet's beauty enter his head. He saw her beauty as something so “beautiful” that he is unworthy to have, because John doesn't have any knowledge about love he relates his feelings to Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, where he identifies Lenina as Juliet. This quotes helps us to understand how pure and modest John's feelings are towards Lenina (Chapter 9, page 145). “Orgy porgy”
Slang term for the ritual orgies people have in the novel
Originate from the British/Scots slang words “argy-bargy” which means something “loud or rough argument or confrontation.” But Huxley uses it in the novel in a sexual connotation. It also means a conventional close solidarity service that uses group sex as a method of breaking down the perceived differences between people and increasing social stability. Music and Soma plays important parts in an Orgy-Porgy meeting, because it enhances the moods and eliminate any inhibitions. Example:
1.“ All drank. Tirelessly the music played. The drums beat. The crying and clashing of the harmonies were an obsession in the melted bowels.”(Pg70 line12) “As verse succeeded verse the voices thrilled with an ever intenser excitement.”(Pg71 line17) -This rituals/service/meetings is also another way of “thinking control” use by the leaders to control society because by “Orgy-Porgy” they can keep everyone’s brain in infant level “The loving cup of strawberry ice-cream soma was passed from hand to hand and, with the formula ‘I drink to my annihilation,’ twelve times quaffed.” (Pg70 line1) “For the Solidarity Service had given as well as taken, drawn off only to replenish. She was full, she was made perfect, and she was still more than merely herself.”(Pg74 line8) “And, of course, whenever the masses seized political power, then it was happiness rather Than truth and beauty that mattered.”(Pg201 line5)
The formula suggests people to destroy themselves are because the leaders want people to inhibit expressing their real feeling or lose their own feeling, in order to control people more effectively. In addition, while people are happy in their life, they do not fight against the society which satisfy them; therefore the leaders enable people to be satisfied by giving their happiness during the service lead to people’s thinking is controlled. Transformation of Bernard Marx
At the beginning he is different than everybody else. People in the lower caste do not fully obey to his orders because of his outward appearance. “To have dealings with members of the lower castes was always, for Bernard, a most distressing experience.” “He stood eight centimeters short of the standard Alpha height and was slender in pro portion. Contact with members of the lower castes always reminded him painfully of this physical inadequacy.” (Page 55 chapter 4) He is more independent thinking because of feeling separate from society. He appreciates the beauty of the world. “Bernard Marx drew a deep breath. He looked up into the sky and round the blue horizon and finally down into Lenina’s face. ‘Isn’t it beautiful’ his voice trembled a little. She smiled at him with an expression of the most sympathetic understanding. ‘Simply perfect for Obstacle golf,’ she answered rapturously.” (Page51 Chapter4) Bernard Marx was a close friend with Helmholtz Watson.
He questions about the society. “He laughed, ‘yes, ‘everybody’s happy nowadays.’ We begin giving the children that at five. But wouldn’t you like to be free to be happy in some other way, Lenina? In your own way, for example; not in everybody else’s way” (page 79 Chapter6) He is rebellious, smart, human and wants more from Lenina than sex. He thinks that Golf was a waste of time and suggest to going for a walk in the lake district alone with lenina, but lenina could not get the point of just walking among the lake and talking. (Page 71 chapter 6) He does not like casual sex, likes to do things in private. (Page 50 chapter 4, In the elevator, Bernard gets all red in the face when Lenina publicly discusses their plans for a sexy weekend away together.) “Pretty harmless, perhaps; but also pretty disquieting. That mania, to start with, for ding thins in private. Which meant, in practice, not doing anything at all. For what was there that one could do in private.” (Page 76 chapter6) (Page72 solidarity service.) Refuse to use Soma and rather be himself. (Page 46 Chapter3) "In a crowd," he grumbled. "As usual." He remained obstinately gloomy the whole afternoon; wouldn't talk to Lenina's friends (of whom they met dozens in the ice-cream soma bar between the wrestling bouts); and in spite of his misery absolutely refused to take the half-gramme raspberry sundae, which she pressed upon him. "I'd rather be myself," he said. "Myself and nasty. Not somebody else, however jolly." (Page77 Chapter 6) As he becomes famous, he began to disobey the orders. “But, recognized him as important, the order of things was good. But, reconciled by his success he yet refused to forgo the privilege of criticizing this order.”(Page136 Chapter 11) Brag about the victory to Helmholtz. “and I had six girls last week,’ he confided to Helmholtz Watson, ‘one on Monday, two one Tuesday, two more on Friday, and one on Saturday. ” (Page 136 chapter 11) Changing partners constantly (page 136 chapter11)
The victory was not about personal integrity as it was becoming famous Stopped question and oppose to the society.
Holds parties and enjoy been in public.
Helmholtz and his discovery of his poetry
In chapter 4 Helmholtz reveals that he feels badly constrained as a writer by the limited subject matter of his work. He wrote a poem is about solitude. In chapter 12 “Yesterday’s committee... Why should it seem so squalidly?” (pg. 157-158) this poem is entirely about being alone, about being melancholy and reflective in one's solitude. Just as John did on the Reservation. Helmholtz explores John’s spirituality while John’s alone. Helmholtz becomes aware of the "presence" of some "absurd essence," but something more solid and more real than all the girls he has sex with. The "presence," whatever it is, makes him realize that his copulations with women are actually "squalid” (dirty). He needs “some other kind of violence and madness,” something other than lust or marriage or family issues, but he doesn’t know what that might be. Contrast- John the Savage’s view of love Vs. Lenina’s
John convinces himself that he loves Lenina. He expresses his love by the way he looks at her and by inhaling her perfume. He also remains modest and conservative about his feelings towards her, “ He unfolded a pair of zippicamiknicks, blushed, put them hastily away again; but kissed a perfumed acetate handkerchief and wound a scarf round his neck,” (chapter 9, page 143). John’s modesty towards his feelings about Lenina represents a central conflict between the Reservation society and the Brave New World society. Since Linda was unable to provide him with emotional lessons, John relates all his emotions to Shakespeare’s depiction of love, as Romeo and Juliet (chapter 12, page 176). He identifies Lenina in the role of Juliet and him as Romeo. Romeo and Juliet parallels John and Lenina’s romantic situation, since the two are from different worlds. Lenina inhabits the civilized world, a world that looks down upon reservation people who live savage and incomprehensible lives. The reservation people, on the other hand, cannot understand the scientific society that now lacks emotion, religion, and natural life. The passion that John feels for Lenina mirrors the love that Romeo and Juliet, two lovers from feuding families, have for each other. Soma- currency + control – discus
Born: “Two thousand pharmacologists and biochemists” invent soma in A.F.178,it is “being produced commercially” after six years. Way to get:In the vestibule of Park Lane Hospital, at six, Deltas get soma from Deputy Sub-Bursar.(Pg183) Level of using:“half a gramme for a half-holiday, a gramme for a weekend, two grammes for a trip to the gorgeous East, three for dark eternity on the moon;”(Pg47 line24) While people in leisure, in rituals, or getting negative emotions, they take soma. Example:
“-or if ever by some unlucky chance such a crevice of time should yawn in the solid substance of their distractions, there is always soma, delicious soma”(Pg47 line21) “The service had begun. The dedicated soma tablets were placed in the center of the dinner table.”(Pg69 last line) “Tomakin was still on holiday on holiday from humiliation and pain, in a world where he could not hear those words, that derisive laughter”(Pg211 line2) Control
“The Deltas muttered, jostled one another a little, and then were still. The threat had been effective. Deprivation of soma appalling thought!”(Pg185 line7) Showing Deltas totally controlled by soma,they all obey someone who own soma.Fear is the best weapon for controlling people,in this case,losing soma becomes the scare of Deltas. “The loving cup of strawberry ice-cream soma was passed from hand to hand and, with the formula ‘I drink to my annihilation,’ twelve times quaffed.”(Pg70 line1) During the Solidarity Service, soma used to help brainwashing the members lead to they give up their individual thought. People will be controlled more easily if they inhibit expressing their individually resistant feeling or lose their rebel emotion. “In the past you could only accomplish these things by making a great effort and after years of hard moral training.Now,you swallow two or three half-gramme tablets, and there you are.”(Pg210 line4) Soma is not only making people be happy but also the sole solution when people encounter negative impact. Just like John says “Getting rid of everything unpleasant instead of learning to put up with it.”Showing people totally lose the ability to bear the unpleasantness, and soma is the only power of people fight against bad emotions; therefore people are unable to be out of the control of soma. “Savagery” Vs. “civilization” Vs. “liberty” – meltdown of john the Savage + results An uncivilized or barbaric state/condition vs. An advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture, science, industry, and government has been reached vs. Freedom from captivity, confinement, or physical restraint John The Savage vs. Bernard Marx vs. Mustapha Mond
The Reservation vs. The Brand New World vs. Human Rights
John who is labeled as the savage in London, discussed with the Controller, Mustapha Mond, how civilized countries “prefer to do things comfortably,”(Chapter 17, page 240) Mustapha Mond believed that “instability means the end of civilization”(Chapter 17, page 237) and by getting rid of everything unpleasant that can cause instability will give society its freedom to be happy. Therefore, he believes that taking away old age, using Soma and practicing promiscuity are things that should be valued in our everyday lives. John the Savage disagrees with the controllers believes about civilization. John believe that what the civilization need is “something with tears for a change. Nothing costs enough here,”(Chapter 17, page 239) He believes that giving Soma, taking away old age, and brainwashing society with ideas is unethical and cruel. During his conversation with the controller, they argued about the importance of religion (Chapter 17, page 232). He realized that he is against all civilizations morals and values. He would rather live with all the inconvenience in life and be unhappy rather than living like a civilize person who has no heart and a big sinner who doesn't repent his sins to God. Irony in John the Savage's name
John is called "the Savage" initially because he was not living in the civilized world, but on the "Savage Reservation." But John is the only character in the novel born naturally of a mother, as opposed to being born in a laboratory (from a test-tube procedure Chapter 1, page 5) He maintains a familial relationship with his mother, while there other characters never know their parents. John also reads Shakespeare as a hobby, while the other characters use drugs and sex as their only sources of recreation. He believed that freedom and individuality should never be sacrificed for the sake of stability (Chapter 17, page 240) In London (Brave New World) he was labeled as a savage because he rejects the society's values and prefers to live as people in the older times. Although he rejects what society tells him what civilized is his mindset and experiences is what we consider “civilize “today “Science is everything” (Huxley page 205)
Brave new world warns the dangers of giving the state control over the new technics. Huxley wrote a story of the visions he paints of a technological society, which is both horrifying and fascinating. In a world where people are control down their emotions, and thoughts, science has the ability to manipulate people. In the brave new world who could use science could control people. Inconvenience Vs. Conveniences – impact on person, society, person + society Person
People in World State don’t need to think about things.
Soma- legal (Citizens are conditioned to love this drug and use it to escape any momentary dissatisfaction) in chapter 6 "I don't understand anything," she said with decision, determined to preserve her incomprehension intact. "Nothing. Least of all," she continued in another tone "why you don't take soma when you have these dreadful ideas of yours. You'd forget all about them. And instead of feeling miserable, you'd be jolly. So jolly,"(pg.79) Everyone is happy in their position
No violenceThey don’t have their own human natural and ability to judge or thinking. Without Soma, they will lost themselves. "’A gramme is better than a damn,’ said Lenina mechanically from behind her hands. ‘I wish I had my soma!’”(pg.100) Society
Convenience Inconvenience Person + Society
Economic is easily to be in control. In chapter1, "the operation undergone voluntarily for the good of Society, not to mention the fact that it carries a bonus amounting to six months' salary" (pg. 3) “The Nine Years' War, the great Economic Collapse...Between stability and..."(pg.41) Soma In chapter15, "Soma distribution!" shouted a loud voice. "In good order, please. Hurry up there."(pg.184) After they die, they still contributes to the society. In Chapte14 “Then with a little start she would wake up again” (pg.176) Society in world is convenient because there is no inconvenience. People have been in controlled by others Easy to destroyed and they won't have any revolution.
“Violent passion surrogate. Regularly once a month ... Without any of the inconveniences." (pg.211) Darwin Bonaparte- “the savage of surrey”
He is an entertainment industry celebrity, famous for capturing a gorilla's wedding on film. The shooting of the rite of John punishes himself by whip his back, leads to a great success for Bonaparte. He named the film as the savage of surrey. “The effect of the film was immediate and enormous” which leads to an invasion of prying tourists. The intrusive visitors throw peanuts to the Savage "as if to an Ape". The Savage takes soma to escape his tormentors; and awakes in the morning, mortified. At the end he chooses to take his own life as the only dignified exit after the shame of what he has done. Darwin captures John’s rite only as something interesting and “splendid”, he has never thought of the cause and the deeper meaning of this “astonishing performance”, same as all the viewers. Once you leave Plato’s Cave, can you ever return?
A cave with 3 prisoners. The prisoners are tied to some rocks, arms and legs are bound and their head is tied so they can't look at anything but the stonewall in front these prisoners been ehre since birth and have never seen outside of the cave behind the prisoners is a fire, and between them is a raised walkway people outside the cave walk along this walkway carrying things on their head including; animals, plants, wood, and stone The Shadows
imagine you're one of the prisoners, you can't look at anything behind or to the side of you. You must look at the wall in front of you. When people walk along the walkway, you can see shadows of the objects they are carrying cast on to the wall if you had never seen the real objects ever before, you wold believe that the shadows of objects were real The Game
Plato suggests that the prisoners would begin a “game” of guessing which shadow would appear next If one of the prisoners were to correctly guess, the others would praise him as clever and say that he were a master of nature The Escape
One of the prisoners then escapes from their bindings and leaves the cave He is shocked at the world he discovers outside the cave and does not believe it can be real As he becomes used to his new surroundings, he realizes that his former view of reality was wrong He begins to understand his new world, and goes on an intellectual journey where he discovers beauty and meaning He see's that his former life, and the guessing game they played is useless The Return
The prisoner returns to the cave to inform the other prisoners of his findings They don't believe him and threaten to kill him if he tries to set them free “Allegory of the Cave” is a theory put forward by Plato, concerning human perception. He claimed that knowledge gained through the senses is no more than opinion and that in order to have real knowledge, we must gain it through philosophical reasoning In Plato's theory, the cave represents people who believe empirical evidence ensures knowledge. If you believe that what you see should be taken as truth, then you are merely seeing a shadow of the truth. The escape prisoner represents the Philosopher, who seeks knowledge outside of the cave and outside of the senses. The sun represents philosophical truth and knowledge. His intellectual journey represents a philosopher’s journey when finding the truth and wisdom. If I were the escaped prisoner/philosopher I would still return to the cave. After seeing all the new knowledge and the truth I can gain outside the cave, I would want the other prisoners to know what they didn't know all this time. I would feel burden and guilty for not sharing what I gained. The game they played represents how people believe that one person can be a master when they have knowledge of the empirical world. Plato is demonstrating that this master does not actually know any truth, and suggesting that it's ridiculous to admire someone like this. As someone you was with them playing the games I would feel that it’s my responsibility to tell them the truth. Although the other prisoners reaction to the escape returning showed that people are scared of knowing philosophical truth and don't trust philosophers, I wouldn't regret trying to tell them everything I know. In the end at least I would have no guilt and know that I tried my best sharing the truth to everyone. Major themes –list
Dehumanization: The central theme of brave new world is dehumanization. That people in the modern world are eroding the idea of human being as unique individuals and with their own soul. In depicts what might happen if theses trends were to prevail. There is a risk that our lives could come to be completely predictable and “packed”. Never knew what is the real life at outside of the world. For example, science in Brave new World has given the controllers the mean to reach into people’s personalities and adjust them so that they conform to the categories assigned them, and the citizen of the of the world state have no ideas not put into their heads by the controllers. Soma and other distraction ensure that they have no idea for experiences or even reflection that might lead them outside the place. -The story, Brave New World, shows us they have begun to treat each other like a machines and behave accordingly. In chater11,” the fifty- six four spindle chucking and turning machines were being manipulated by fifty- six aquiline and ginger Gammas” True and false science: In Brave New World, among other things, an attack on people who offer the public ambitions, all encompassing systems of ideas which are supposed to be based on science. But they on inspection turn out to lack its tentative, hypothetical regard for truth, relying instead on simplistic, mechanistic views of human nature. Lack of a positive message: John draws attention to the absence of a religious awareness which would enable the citizens of the World State to face up to death more fully, but his own attempts to supply a better perspective are unimpressive. Knowledge
Knowledge is power
Knowledge influences an individuals characters, because knowledge gives you courage, power and control, and moral stability Knowledge gives you courage to stand up for anything. For example, John is able to stand up to his bullies in the Reservation because he knew how to read (Chapter 8, p.130) Knowledge gives you power and control in the society. One example is when Bernard had the power to embarrassed and make the Director quit his job because he knew his secret about Linda and John (Chapter 10, page 148). Also, Bernard being able to have knowledge about both the reserve and civilized world he lectured the controller, Mustapha Mond, about society (Chapter 11, page 159). If you have a deeper knowledge about your society or yourself, you are most likely to have moral stability. For example, John knows the difference between good and bad, and right or wrong (Linda's Soma holiday = death) (Chapter 11, page 154). Another example is Lenina’s confusion about John's feelings for her. She's ignorant about his morals and beliefs that her uncertainty made her logically assumed that he must want to have sex with her, which in the end made John furious (Chapter 13, page 193) In the brave new world,the Director of the Fertilizing Room has power to set other people’s level of intelligence,sexuality,and appearance,also the president is able to exile whoever he wants ;therefore they have power to decide the fate of others .However,the society control people by providing soma to people,educating baby,and suggesting people to give their individual personality in meeting.