plethysmography

Topics: Lung, Plethysmograph, Respiratory physiology Pages: 6 (969 words) Published: October 10, 2013
Plethysmography is used to measure changes in volume in different parts of the body. This can help check blood. The test may be done to check for blood clots in the arms and legs, or to measure how much air you can hold in your lungs.

Lung plethysmography:

You will breathe or pant against a mouthpiece. Clips will be put on your nose to shut off your nostrils. Depending on the information your doctor is looking for, the mouthpiece may be open at first, and then closed.

You will be breathing against the mouthpiece in both the open and closed positions - they give different information to the doctors. As your chest moves while you breathe or pant, it changes the pressure and amount of air in the room and against the mouthpiece. From these changes, the doctor can get an accurate measure of the amount of air in your lungs. Plethysmograph:

A plethysmograph is an instrument for measuring changes in volume within an organ or whole body (usually resulting from fluctuations in the amount of blood or air it contains). Organs studied:

1) Lungs[edit]
Pulmonary plethysmographs are commonly used to measure the functional residual capacity (FRC) of the lungs—the volume in the lungs when the muscles of respiration are relaxed—and total lung capacity.

In a traditional plethysmograph, the test subject is placed inside a sealed chamber the size of a small telephone booth with a single mouthpiece. At the end of normal expiration, the mouthpiece is closed. The patient is then asked to make an inspiratory effort. As the patient tries to inhale (a maneuver which looks and feels like panting), the lungs expand, decreasing pressure within the lungs and increasing lung volume. This, in turn, increases the pressure within the box since it is a closed system and the volume of the box compartment has decreased to accommodate the new volume of the subject.

Boyle's Law is used to calculate the unknown volume within the lungs. First, the change in volume of the chest is computed. The initial pressure and volume of the box are set equal to the known pressure after expansion times the unknown new volume. Once the new volume is found, the original volume minus the new volume is the change in volume in the box and also the change in volume in the chest. With this information, Boyle's Law is used again to determine the original volume of gas in the chest: the initial volume (unknown) times the initial pressure is equal to the final volume times the final pressure

2) Limbs[edit]

Some plethysmograph devices are attached to arms, legs or other extremities and used to determine circulatory capacity. In water plethysmography an extremity, e.g. an arm, is enclosed in a water-filled chamber where volume changes can be detected. Air plethysmography uses a similar principle but based on an air-filled long cuff, which is more convenient but less accurate. Another practical device is mercury-filled strain gauges used to continuously measure circumference of the extremity, e.g. at mid calf. Impedance plethysmography is a non-invasive method used to detect venous thrombosis in these areas of the body.

3) Genitals[edit]
Another common type of plethysmograph is the penile plethysmograph. This device is used to measure changes in blood flow in the penis. Although some researchers use this device to assess sexual arousal and sexual orientation, the data are usually not admissible in court cases in the United States. An approximate female equivalent to penile plethysmography is vaginal photoplethysmography, which optically measures blood flow in the vagina.[ What Does the Test Measure?

Plethysmography gives your doctor two measurements that can help her understand how well your lungs are functioning:



Total capacity - How much air your lungs can hold after a deep breath, and



Residual volume (or functional reserve capacity) - How much air is left in your lungs after you have exhaled as much as possible





The Procedure
During a...
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