Thesis: Provide a broad overview of the history, future, benefits, and controversies of cosmetic surgery. I. Introduction to history of cosmetic surgery through the ages . 800 B.C. Physicians were utilizing skin grafts for facial reconstruction . World War I had a impact on Plastic Surgery; due to war wounds and disfigure . American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons (ASPRS) . Techniques and procedures
II. Risks and benefits of cosmetic surgery
. Cosmetic Surgeries
. Make the patient feel better about themselves, increase in confidence and self-esteem . Surgical implications and errors
. Harmful and deadly anesthetics complications
IV. Malpractice of plastic/ cosmetic surgery
. Knowledge of surgeon’s malpractice
. Medical liability and Plastic surgery
. Consent of patients rights
. Knowledge of patient, for the physician’s safety
History of Plastic/ Cosmetic Surgery, initially plastic surgery was intended and usually used as a repair mechanism to reconstruct, as early as 800 B.C. Physicians were utilizing skin grafts for facial reconstruction. In plastic surgery, surgeons use skin grafting- transfer of skin tissue. There are different types of skin grafting; Auto grafts are taken from the recipient. If absent or deficient of natural tissue, alternatives can be cultured sheets of epithelial cells in vitro or synthetic compounds. Anesthetic surgeries carry a high risk because patients frequently do not consider the invasive nature of the procedures. It is important for a medical expert to discuss the patient’s reasons behind requesting a cosmetic surgery to evaluate if the patient is a good surgical candidate. Surgical malpractice is a difficult case to investigate and prove. There is a gap between patient knowledge and hospital staff, the patient has to prove that the surgeon did not meet applicable standard care to the patient, the surgeon breached this duty of care, and most of the entire patient was injured as a direct result of the breach.
History of Plastic/ Cosmetic Surgery
History of Plastic/ Cosmetic Surgery, initially plastic surgery was intended and usually used as a repair mechanism to reconstruct, as early as 800 B.C. Physicians were utilizing skin grafts for facial reconstruction. The birth place of plastic surgery was India, plastic surgery was used to repair the noses of criminals in India who were punished for crimes, and plastic surgery involved taking skin from the forehead and using a repair skin for other parts of the body. Along with, India Egypt also recognized the concept of plastic surgery, Egypt used plating surgery to repair the dead stuffing bandages inside of the body to form past prescience, was a duplication of now modern cosmetic surgery instead now you implants. There are two types of plastic surgery; cosmetic (surgical and non-surgical) and reconstructive. Cosmetic surgery is done for the purpose of improving appearance while reconstructive surgery corrects or repairs a defect or injury (American Society of Plastic Surgeons, 2011). World War I had a impact on Plastic Surgery; due to war wounds and disfigure, During and after WWI soldiers came home with missing limbs and shrapnel torn faces that disfigured their appearance. Typically, plastic/ cosmetic surgery was reserved as a repair mechanism to assist wounded and deformed soldiers in war. Development off techniques and experimentation of plastic surgery and prompted Harold Delf Gilles (1882-1860) to establish the first hospital devoted to reconstructive plastic surgery (Backstein and Hinek 2005). In 1814, Joseph Carpue successfully performed cosmetic procedure on a British military officer who had lost his nose to the toxic effects of mercury treatments. The development of cosmetic surgery received a push for movement from the need to repair gross deformities sustained in WWI to the need to change normal and typical physical appearances. American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons (ASPRS)...
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