Plant Cell Structure and Functions

Topics: Cell, Organelle, Cell wall Pages: 10 (1675 words) Published: July 28, 2015
Plant Cell
Plant cells are eukaryotic cells or cells with membrane bound nucleus. Generally, plant cells are larger than animal cells and are mostly similar in size and are rectangular or cube shaped.  Plant cells are similar to animal cells in being eukaryotic and they have similar cell organelles.

What is a Plant Cell?
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Plant cells are eukaryotic cells i.e., the DNA in a plant cell is enclosed within the nucleus. The most important distinctive structure of plant cell is the presence of the cell wall outside the cell membrane. It forms the outer lining of the cell. The cell wall mostly constitutes of cellulose and its main function is providing support and rigidity. Plants cells also contain many membrane bound cellular structures. These organelles carry out specific functions necessary for survival and normal operation of the cells. There are a wide range of operations like producing hormones, enzymes, and all metabolic activities of the cell. 

Diagram of Plant Cell

Distinctive Features of Plant Cell
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The features that are distinctive in plant cells are as follows:  

Plant cells contain cell structures like cell wall, plastids, and large vacuoles.

Cell wall provide plant cells rigidity and structural support and cell to cell interaction.

Plastids help in storage of plant products. 

Chloroplasts aid in carrying out the process of photosynthesis to produce food for the plants. 

Vacuoles are water-filled, membrane bound organelles which stores useful materials. 

Plants have specialized cells in order to perform certain functions for the survival of plants. Some cells manufacture and store organic molecules, others transport nutrients throughout the plant. 

Some specialized plant cells include: parenchyma cells, collenchyma cells, sclerenchyma cells, water conducting cells and food conducting cells. Parts of Plant Cell
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Plants cell constitute of membrane bound nucleus and many cellular structures. These organelles carry out functions that are necessary for the proper functioning and survival of the cell. The cell organelles of the plant are enclosed by a cell wall and cell membrane. The constituents of the cell are suspended in the cytoplasm or cytosol. 

The parts of the plant cell are as follows: 

Cell wall is the outermost rigid covering of the plant cell. It is a salient feature of plant cell. 

Cell membrane or the plasma membrane is the outer lining of the cell inside the cell wall. 

Cytosol or cytoplasm is the gel-like matrix inside the cell membrane which constitutes all other cell organelles.

Nucleus is the control center of the cell. It is a membrane bound structure which contains the hereditary material of the cell - the DNA 

Chloroplast is a plastid with green pigment chlorophyll. It traps light energy and converts it to chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis.

Mitochondria carries out cellular respiration and provides energy to the cells.

Vacuoles are the temporary storage center of the cell.

Golgi body is the unit where proteins are sorted and packed.

Ribosomes are structures that assemble proteins.

Endoplasmic reticulum are membrane covered organelles that transport materials.

Plant Cell Structure and Function
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All parts of the plant play a significant role in the proper functioning of the cell. Unlike animals, plant cells are surrounded by a rigid cell wall. 

Cell wall: The cell wall is a rigid layer that surrounds the plant cells. It is made up of cellulose.  Cell wall is a characteristic feature to cells of plants. Plant cell walls are primarily made up of cellulose. Plant cell wall consists of three layers: the primary cell wall, secondary cell wall and the middle lamella. It is located outside the cell membrane whose main function is to provide rigidity, strength, protection against mechanical stress and infection. Cell wall is made up of cellulose,...
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