Planning is of paramount importance for effective school management. Sound plans are essential for effective and efficient management in any organisation, because they serve as guides to all management functions. The management’s plan for the school are then given to the various departments at a school and from departments members of staff take the senior management’s plan and implement it during the day to day running of the school activities. Therefore, this assignment is looking at the assertion that, planning for effective school management is one thing, implementation to attain the set goals and objectives is yet another. According to Marshal (1992), define planning as, “It is the process of determining in advance what should be accomplished, when, by whom, how, and at what cost.” The planning helps people in concentrating their efforts on the most important jobs rather than wasting time on the lesser important work. Agumba et al.(2009; 34), went on to say, “Planning is a mental predisposition to do things in orderly way, to think before acting and to act in the light of facts rather than guesses.” Planning is deciding the best alternative among others to perform different managerial functions in order to achieve preset goals. Implementation is the means of putting of the programme and projects outlined in the plan in operation using the available resources (Forojalla 1993). There are various steps that are followed in the process of planning. Problems have to be identified, followed by gathering information about the activities involve, then analysis of information and there after selecting the plan. At this stage the plan which is acceptable to the operating personnel is proposed. The adaptability and the cost of the plan are also taken into consideration (Handy and Aitken 1986). Lack of well-defined objectives and priorities is the common cause of failure. ‘Failure to plan is planning to fail.’ Planning is useful to organisations like schools in many the ways. To start with, when one starts to plan he/she have to set objectives and goals which should be archived after implementing the plan. The objectives set should be achievable, clearly stated such that everyone taking part in the implementation of the plan understands them with less difficulty. The planning focuses attention on objectives and results. Blandford, (1997), define objective as, “something that one’s efforts or actions intended to attain or accomplish; purpose; goal; target.” Every school exists to achieve certain goals and objectives. It forces its members not to get lost in the maze of routine activities and lose sight of the broad objectives for which the organisation was established. Coming to implementation, for instance, when the members of staff or members of school organization have been given the plan, they will all work in line with what has been planned all of them and by doing that there will be that uniformity in the way they will perform their duties and since they will work towards the same objectives and goals that the organization was established for, then the chances of attaining the set goals will be very higher. Planning reduces uncertainty and risks. Agumba (2009; 44) defines uncertainty as follows, “It is the gap between what is known and what is needed to be known to make correct decisions.” Uncertainly and risks are inevitable and planning cannot eliminate them, but planning enables an organisation to cope up with uncertainty and risk. Although uncertainty cannot be completely prevented, they can be reduced through proper planning. When it comes to implementation, the level of uncertainty during the implementation is reduced and putting in place what was planned become easy unlike when one has not reduced the uncertainty level. A well planned project rarely fails as the school and other members will take time to ensure that they achieve the planned goals and objectives. It is planning that shows the effectiveness of the...
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