Placebo Effect

Topics: Coffee, Drink, Caffeine Pages: 3 (693 words) Published: December 12, 2012
The hypothesis of this research is the affects of caffeine and placebo on memory and metamemory. The experiment involved a total of 83 participants and took place over a course of two days. There are three independent variables that were involved over the course of two days. The variables are caffeine (day 1) and caffeine (day two), caffeine (day 1) and placebo (day two), placebo (day 1) and caffeine (day 2), and placebo (day 1) and placebo (day 2). The dependent variables that were being measured are the judgment of learning and recall memory.

The beverage that was used was an orange drink. Some of the drinks were injected with caffeine, and both caffeine and placebo drinks were injected with salt so that the participants cannot distinguish the difference between the two. On both days of the experiment participants had specific instructions such as not eating or drinking prior to the experiment. Just before the experiment they were given their beverage 30 minutes before. (Kelemen & Creely, 2003)

During day one of the experiment, the participants studied 40-paired words twice. After studying they were presented with either the immediate or delayed judgment of learning. They were prompted after on how well they can recall the second word (Kelemen & Creeley, 2003)

On day two, participants were shown one word and then asked to recall the second word that is associated with.

It was concluded that for the judgment of learning, the participants who consumed different beverages on both days, caffeine/placebo or placebo/caffeine, the results revealed that both the immediate and delayed judgment of learning scores were high. In the recall memory, the results revealed that those who consumed similar beverage on both days (caffeine/caffeine or placebo/placebo), the recalled words were higher than those who drank different beverages on both days

The hypothesis tested, shows that the data collected does not support the effect that...


Bibliography: 1. Steptoe, A., & Wardle, J. (1999). Mood and drinking: A naturalistic diary study of alcohol, coffee and tea. Psychopharmacology, 141(3), 315-321.
Summary:
How the consumption of alcohol, coffee and tea has an impact on mood for men and women.
In what ways alcohol, coffee and tea has an impact on mood for men and women.
2. Addicott, M. A., & Laurienti, P. J. (2009). A comparison of the effects of caffeine following abstinence and normal caffeine use. Psychopharmacology, 207(3), 423-431.
Summary:
The experiment studies if caffeine impacts in a state where caffeine is present and in the state of cessation of caffeine. Result shows that the cessation of caffeine has a positive impact on mood and reaction time and in regard to memory and attention the cessation and presence of caffeine were improved.
3. James, J. E. (1998). Acute and chronic effects of caffeine on performance, mood, headache, and sleep. Neuropsychobiology, 38(1), 32-41.
Summary:
This experiment shows that the caffeine does not improve performance when in acute of habitual use. It does show that the absence of caffeine causes severe headache and longer sleep time.
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