Pioneers of Sociology
* Karl Marx He said that the working class will defeat the ownership class, and result in a utopia where government will wither away to nothing and the principle of economics will be based on "For each according to his needs, and from each according to his ability." His contribution to thinking in sociology is mainly in a perspective called "Conflict Theory" in which social organisation and change is based upon conflicts built into society. Many people see this as having much resemblance to classical (Greek and Latin) myths about the Phoenix Bird (who flies too close to the sun and burns) and creation myths of Athapaskan people of the Great Plains of North America. It is ironical that he predicted revolution to take place in industrialized societies, but the only communist revolutions in history took place in large agrarian feudal societies (as Russia and China were). Dialectical materialism and conflict approach. * Auguste Comte He was the founder of French positivism. Comte can also be given credit for inventing or coining the term sociology. Comte's philosophy of positivism developed from historical studies of the human mind. This led to Comte's views of the three stages of the history of sciences. In order as follows, the stages are: 1) Theological - nature has a will of its own. This stage is broken down into three stages of its own, including animism, polytheism, and monotheism. 2) Metaphysical state - though substituting ideas for a personal will. 3) Positive - a search for absolute knowledge. * Herbert Spencer traced the development of human life/organ from its lowest recognizable form up to human beings. He further says that as mind controls entire body and organs, same way the society (through its rules), controls all organs /parts. Therefore society /collectivity has power to control . * Émile Durkheim The societal contributions of Emile Durkheim, founder of modern sociology, include: the idea of the whole being...
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