Phytography of Leaves

Topics: Fruit, Plant morphology, Seed Pages: 5 (976 words) Published: March 29, 2013

Date:APRIL 2, 2013 Section:


The fruit is a matured ovary containing one or more seeds. It is composed of the exocarp, mesocarp and the endocarp. Many floral parts aside from the ovary are persistent and therefore could still be seen in mature fruits. Some examples are the receptacles (apple, sepals (eggplant), style (corn) and many more. There are several variations of the fruit morphology and they are all important in the study of plant taxonomy and plant identification.


Vigna sesquipedalisDolichos lablab
Psidium guajavaAnona squamosa
Fragaria vescaAnanas comosus
Cucumis sativusCucurbita moschata
Citrus microcarpaCitrus grandis
Mangifera indicaSpondias purpurea
Pyrus malusHibiscus esculentus
Ricinus communisBixa orellana
Tithonia diversifoliaCosmos sp.
Oryza sativaZea mays
Cocos nuciferaLycopersicon esculentum


A. Study carefully all the fruit specimens and try to match their types with the list here.

Types of Fruits

1. According to composition and origin

a. Simple fruit - a fruit that results from the ripening of a single ovary. b. Compound fruit – when the fruit develop from several ovaries. 1) Aggregate fruit – a fruit that develop from several ovaries that belong to a single flower and become crowded into a mass. These are joined together by a common receptacle. 2) Multiple or collective fruit – a fruit that is derived from the ovaries of several flowers that unite into a mass. Example: cone – a multiple fruit consisting of overlapping appressed scales, each scal bearing one or two seeds on its surface. 3) Accessory fruit – fruit that develops from other parts of the flower other than the ovary. Example: pome – a fruit in which most part develops from the receptacle.

2. According to texture and dehiscence

a. Fleshy fruits – a general term to refer to fruits where all or most of the pericarp is soft and fleshy at maturity. Berry – a fruit where the entire pericarp becomes fleshy.
Hesperidium - a berry with a leathery rind.
Pepo – a unilocular berry with a hard rind that develops from an inferior ovary.

Drupe or stone fruit - a type of fruit where the exocarp is thin, the mesocarp is thick and fleshy, and the endocarp is hard and stony.

b. Dry fruits – fruits in which the entire pericarp becomes dry often brittle or hard at maturity.

Dehiscnet dry fruits – fruits that split open along definite points at maturity thus releasing the seeds.

Capsule – a fruit that is derived from two or more united carpels and splitting in various ways. Legume or pod – a dehiscent fruit derived from a single carpel and splits open along 2 seams or sutures. Silique - an elongated, two-locular fruit with two parietal placentae, and usually with two valves separating from the persistent placentae and septum as in Brassicaceae

Indehiscent dry fruits – dry fruits do not split open along definite sutures at maturity. These fruits usually contain one or two seeds.

Achene – a small, unilocular, one-seeded fruit, the seed is attached to the ovary wall at a single point. Acorn – the hard, dry indehiscent fruit of oaks having a single, large seed and a cup-like base. Bur – a fruit with often hooked or barbed spines or appendages. Caryopsis or grain – a seed-like fruit resembling an achene but having the seed coat firmly united with the ovary wall. Nut - a one-seeded fruit that resembles an achene, but larger. It has a long shell, with much-thickened, hard pericarp. Samara – a winged achene

Schizocarp – a dry fruit that splits along one-seeded carpels or parts. Utricle - a one-seeded fruit with a thin, bladdery and inflated wall. This type of fruit is a characteristic of Amaranthaceae.

B. Select 20 specimens and identify the fruit variation. Complete...
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