Physical Education

Topics: Lever, Classical mechanics, Knee Pages: 8 (1317 words) Published: March 9, 2014
Physical Education 2014

Terms and Definitions

Agonist and Antagonist – these are terms for muscles, which work in pairs.

Agonist – is the muscle, which is the prime mover and creates the initial movements via contraction e.g. the bicep is the antagonist muscle, when you pull your arm towards you bending at the elbow. Antagonist – is the muscle, which relaxes to allow the movement to occur e.g. the triceps will relax to allow your arm the bend at the elbow. Flexion – decreasing the angle between two joints e.g. bending at the elbow or bending at the knee. Flexion also occurs at other joints like the shoulder or hip where there may not be any obvious bend in the joint. Extension – increasing the angle between two joints e.g. straightening the elbow or knee. Extension cans also occur at the shoulder or hip joints. Adduction – side ways movement of a limb towards or across the centerline of the body. Abduction – side ways movement of a limb away from the body. Rotation – Turning movement around an imaginary line like a wheel turning on its axis or a person doing a somersault. Circumduction – in circumduction the end of a bone moves in a circle an example of this is bowler in cricket.

Movement
Agonist (prime mover)
Antagonist (relaxed)
Wrist Flexion
Flexor Digitorum
Extensor Digitorum
Elbow Flexion
Biceps
Triceps
Elbow Extension
Triceps
Biceps
Shoulder Flexion
Anterior Deltoid Pectoralis Major, Biceps
Posterior Deltoid Latissimus Dorsi, Triceps
Shoulder Extension
Posterior Deltoid, Latissimus Dorsi
Anterior, Pectoralis Major
Shoulder Adduction
Latissimus Dorsi, Pectoralis Major
Deltoid
Shoulder Abduction
Deltoid
Latissimus Dorsi, Pectoralis Major
Spine/Trunk Flexion
Rectus Abdominis
Erector Spinae
Spine/Truck Extension
Erector Spinae
Rectus Abdominis
Hip Flexion
Iliopsoas, Quadriceps
Gluteus Maximus, Hamstring
Hip Extension
Gluteus Maximus, Hamstring
Iliopsoas, Quadriceps
Knee Flexion
Hamstrings
Quadriceps
Dorsiflexion
Tibialis Anterior
Gastrocnemius, Soleus
Plantarflexion
Gastrocnemius, Soleus
Tibialis Anterior

Biomechanics

Linear Motion
Motion that occurs is a straight line. All parts of the body move in the same direction and at the same speed (e.g. jumping up in the air to catch a ball or travelling in a car).

Line out jumper in Rugby Union

Drag Race

Angular Motion

Motion that occurs around an axis - this axis can be internal (e.g. body parts rotating around a joint) or external (e.g. spinning a ball on your finger). Spinning a ball around your finger
Spinning figure skater

General Motion

A combination of linear and angular motion - this is the most common of all movements, as most human movement requires the rotation of body parts around joint (e.g. cycling, swimming and running).

Apply your knowledge
Classify the following physical activities as linear motion or angular motion or general motion 1. Sprinting - General
2. Rebounding a basketball - Linear
3. Driving a car - Linear
4. Tossing a underhand ball in basketball – Rotary/General 5. Horse Riding - Linear
6. Lawn Bowls – General/Rotary

Centre of gravity can be defined as ‘the single point at which all parts of an objects are equally balanced’.

For a ‘normal’ human being standing upright, their center of gravity lies around the area of their navel. A person’s center of gravity can change depending on their body position because as mentioned before, the center of gravity is the exact point where all parts of an object are equally balanced. The center of gravity can also lie outside an object; especially of the object is bent over or learning in a certain direction.

Center of gravity

Gravity

Line of gravity is the vertical line that passes through the center of gravity to the ground. If the line of gravity falls within the object’s base of support (i.e. its...
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