Physical Assessment of Tinea Versicolor (an-an)

Topics: Epidermis, Skin anatomy, Skin Pages: 9 (2071 words) Published: September 8, 2011

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of Health Care 1


Submitted to:
Maria Eliza Mangaliman, PTRP

Submitted by:
Diego, Mary Rose A.Mendoza, Frances Gracelle Q.
Domingo, Rodalyn U.Trinidad, Kaye Erika D.
Trinidad, Denesse Joy G.

Date of Submission:
October 01, 2010


The skin, or integument, and its accessory structures (hair, glands, and nails) constitute the integumentary system. Included in this system are the millions of sensory receptors of the skin and its extensive vascular network. The skin is a dynamic interface between the body and the external environment. It protects the body from the environment even as it allows for communication with the environment.

The skin is an organ, since it consists of several kinds of tissues that are structurally arranged to function together. It is the largest organ of the body, covering over 7,600 sq cm (3000 sq in) in the average adult, and accounts for approximately 7% of a person’s body weight. The skin is of variable thickness, averaging 1.5mm. It is thickest on the parts of the body exposed to wear and abrasion, such as the soles of the feet and the palms of the hand. In these areas, it is about 6mm thick. It is thinnest on the eyelids, external genitalia, and tympanic membrane (eardrum), where it is approximately 0.5mm thick. Even its appearance and texture varies from the rough, callous skin covering the elbows and knuckles to the soft, sensitive areas of the eyelids, nipples, and genitalia.

Major functions of the integumentary system include:
1. Protection. The skin provides protection against abrasion and ultraviolet light. It also provides the entry of microorganisms and dehydration by reducing water loss from the body. 2. Sensation. The integumentary system has sensory receptors that can detect heat, cold, touch, pressure and pain. 3. Vitamin D production. When exposed to ultraviolet light, the skin produces a molecule that can be transformed into vitamin D. 4. Temperature regulation. Body temperature is regulated by controlling blood flow through the skin and the activity of sweat glands. 5. Excretion. Small amounts of waste products are lost through the skin and in gland secretions. 6. Hydroregulation. Human skin is virtually waterproof, protecting the body from desiccation (dehydration) on dry land, and even from water absorption when immersed in water. 7. Cutaneous absorption. Some gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, may pass through the skin and enter the blood. Small amounts of UV light are absorbed readily. Certain chemicals can easily enter. 8. Communication. Contraction of the facial muscles produces facial expressions that convey an array of emotions.

The skin rests on the hypodermis, which attaches it to underlying bone and muscle and supplies it with blood vessels and nerves. The hypodermis, which is not part of the skin, is sometimes called subcutaneous tissue. The hypodermis is loose connective tissue that contains about half the body’s stored fat, although the amount and location vary with age, sex and diet.


The dense collagenous connective tissue that makes up the dermis contains fibroblasts, fat cells, and macrophages. Nerves, hair follicles, smooth muscles, glands and lymphatic vessels extend into the dermis. Collagen and fibers are responsible for the structural strength of the dermis. The dermis is composed of two layers: 1. Stratum papillarosum is in contact with the epidermis. Numerous projections called papillae extend from the upper portion of the dermis into the epidermis. Papillae form the base for friction ridges on the fingers and toes. 2. Stratum reticularosum the deeper and thicker layer of the dermis. Fibers within this layer are denser and regularly arranged to form a tough, flexible meshwork. The repair...

Bibliography: and Appendices
1. Tierney, L.M., McPhee, S.J., Papadakis, M.A. (Eds.). (1998). CURRENT Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 1998. USA: Prentice Hall International, Inc.
2. Arrojo, M.T.A. (2007). MIMS Philippines PIMS Philippines Index of Medical Specialties. (11th ed.) Singapore: CMPMedica Asia PTE Ltd.
3. Shyrock, H. (1990). Modern Medical Guide. Washington DC: Review and Herald Publishing Association
4. Van de Graaf, K. M. (1998). Human Anatomy (5th ed.) USA: WCB/McGraw-Hill
5. Seeley, R.R., Stephens, T.D., Tate, P. (2008). Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology (6th ed.) Singapore: McGraw-Hill
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