Tougher Plants Beating Stress by Protecting Photosynthesis in Genetically Modified Plants
Part 1: Stress
1. The major stresses that agricultural plants face are drought stress, cold stress, heat stress, flooding stress, mineral deficiency stress, salinity stress, and aluminum toxicity stress.
Part 2: Glycine Betaine
2a. Wild type means it is the phenotype of the typical form of a species as it occurs in nature.
2b. L1 is different from the wild type because it is a strain of the wild type after a mutation occurred and changed some of its phenotype characteristics.
3. Glycine betaine counteracts the effects of salt and temperature stress. It is a substance that is synthesized and taken from the environment by the cells for protection against stress for the leaves, flowers, and fruits in cold exposed plants. It moderates stress in plants.
Part 3: Photosynthesis
4. The x axis is measuring the days after the cold treatment.
5. The y axis is measuring the percent of ion leakage.
6. WT on the graph means wild type.
7. L1 and L5 are independent transgenic plants.
8. The photosynthesis process that is most affected by ion leakage is whether the ATP synthase will function.
9. Two trends I can observe in the graph are that the wild type has the greatest percentage of ion leakage 7 days after the cold treatment while both L1 and L5 had varying percents of ion leakage throughout the 7 days but at the end they had the same amount of ion leakage.
Part 4: Heat Tolerance
10. The x axis is measuring the different temperatures of the treatments the plants were exposed to.
11. The y axis is measuring the changes in the oxygen producing activity of the PSII determined by the thylakoid membranes.
12. The two types of plants that are being studied in this experiment are the wild type and a genetically modified type.
13. The process in photosynthesis that produces oxygen is photolysis.
14. Two trends that I can observe in the graph are both