phl320 r2 critical thinking ch02b

Topics: Logic, Inductive reasoning, Reasoning Pages: 10 (289 words) Published: March 23, 2015
Chapter Two, Part Two
BOC and IBE Reasoning

BOC REASONING
•Coming to decisions often involves
weighing considerations both pro and con.
•Should I get a dog?
•There are reasons for doing so, and
reasons against doing so.
•I must weigh them.

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Weighing considerations often
involves both deductive and
inductive reasoning.

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I shouldn’t get a dog because
my landlord won’t allow it in
the house and you shouldn’t
get a dog if you can’t let it into
the house.
Valid deductive argument!

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My landlord won’t allow a
dog in the house because
it says in the lease I am
not permitted to have a
dog.
Inductive argument: conclusion is supported
by premise but not proved, because landlord
might make an exception.
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“Balance of Considerations” reasoning
often involves both deductive and inductive
reasoning.

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IBE REASONING

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Many inductive arguments involve an
Inference to the Best Explanation
(IBE).

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Why is there a hole in the garden? The best
explanation is that the dog dug it. Therefore the
hole probably was due to the dog’s digging it.
Why did I bomb the midterm? The best
explanation is that I didn’t study hard
enough. Therefore my bombing the
midterm was probably due to my not
studying hard enough.
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Rights Reserved.

An IBE supports a conclusion, but does
not prove it.
IBEs are inductive, not
deductive.

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Rights Reserved.

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