Phl 212 Study Guide

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Phl 212
Leibniz:
• Problems: o mind-body interaction o problem of other minds o hard determinism/fatalism o freedom of the will o Knowledge of universal necessary truths action at a distance "occult"
Motion is a Plenum( a space completely filled of matter; all together)
Monad- A simple substance-without parts there must be simples b/c there are composites
A simple thing can't be extended
Monads can only begin or end all at once
What are they? They are not bodies, they are simple but they enter into composites
Leibniz Law: Identity>>>> Indiscernible
If two things are Indiscernible, they are identical
Problems in Early Modern philosophy
Mind body interaction
Problems with other minds- Leibniz: there are other minds (monads) determinism and free will
Knowledge of universal and necessary truths Leibniz: principle of non-contradiction, geometric truths, Universality is proved by pre - established harmony. necessary truths: always true can't be wrong,
Action at a Distance
Motion in a plenum

Principle of sufficient Reason there are an infinity of possible worlds
God chose this, so it must be the best
Hume
• Experience alone is sufficient for knowledge of universal necessary truth
• Two kinds of perceptions o Impressions(more likely, intense) o Ideas(less vivid copies)
• Differ only by degree of force &vivacity
• Related by the Copy Principle( possible exception: missing shade of blue)
Three Principles of Association
1. Resemblance
2. Contiguity
3. Cause & effect
Things you can know
• Relations of Ideas: proposition that express a relation among ideas; “ 2+2=4” “A is A” (a priori)
• Matters of fact: “The sun will rise tomorrow”, “The sun will not rise tomorrow” o We can only know these on the basis of experience.
• "cause & effect" constant conjunction ( in all cases Atype events are followed by Btype events)
• "necessary Connexion" (all possible case"
• P.U.N In the past I have found that past

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