Philosophies of Education according to Ontologies
Ontological philosophy takes ontology to be a kind of explanation in which the causes are basic substances, and the effects are found in the world. Given the existence of certain kinds of basic substances and basic relationships, it explains the things found in the world by showing how their existence is constituted by such substances and relations among them. In dualism there are two kinds of things that are real: mind/thought , idealism, and body, (realism). Mental things can be known only through introspection, first-person accounts, physical things are known through sensible observation, third-person accounts. Introspection reveals the reality of mental things that are accessible only privately. Because the mental and the physical can be conceived as distinct, it is possible that they are distinct. Behaviorism says all statements about minds, mental life, or mental events can be expressed in terms of behaviors. Behaviorists, like Skinner, say that there are no such things as minds, mental events, states, or processes, but only bodies in motion, behaviors. Mental vocabulary is misleading and should be taken from our speech. Just because we speak about ideas and intentions, that does not mean there are such things. Other behaviorists claim that there may be minds and mental events and processes, and , like Gilbert Ryle, claim that the mental or intentional refers to ways of behaving. It is safe to say "big words" as long as we recognize how such talk is not a claim about their reality apart from their logical status as modes of behavior or dispositions to behave.
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