philosophy

Topics: Ethics, Normative ethics, Meta-ethics Pages: 6 (856 words) Published: March 5, 2014
Reading: pages 3-21

Key Terms (definitions on page 7):
ethics
morality
descriptive ethics
normative ethics
metaethics
applied ethics
instrumentality
intrinsically valuable

Key ideas:
principle of universalizabitlity
principle of impartiality

Be familiar with The Euthyphro by Plato (pages 16-19)
- know Euthyphro's definition of piety
- understand that this is a debate regarding whether or not ethics is an objective or subjective discipline

Be familiar with Common-Sense Religion by Daniel Dennett (pages 19-21) - understand the main idea that the author is trying to make and how he supports it Chapter 2: Subjectivism, Relativism, and Emotivism

Attached Files:
Purposes of Morality.ppt (665 KB)
Reading: pages 22-40

Key Terms:
objectivism
cultural relativism
subjective relativism
emotivism
cognitivism (p. 30)
noncognitivism (p. 30)

Key Ideas:
- While subjective relativism is claimed by most people, be able to name two of the implications of the view (p. 24-25) - Cultural Relativism seems intuitively true, but be aware that disagreement does not entail that there is not a correct answer to moral questions (p. 26-27) - For emotivism, be able to answer questions 12 and 13 on page 33. (This is not for homework, just for you to consider in your notes)

- Understand Ruth Benedict's argument about how "abnormal" people flourish in other cultures (p. 35) and how these behaviors can be viewed either positively or negatively depending upon the cutlure (p. 36)

- Know Mary Midgley's definition of 'moral isolationism' (p. 37) Key terms:
statement
premises
conclusion
deductive
inductive
valid
invalid

Key ideas:
modus ponens
modus tollens
Hypothetical syllogism
implied premises

Fallacies:
appeal to authority
appeal to ignorance
straw man
appeal to the person
hasty generalization
Chapter 4: The Power of Moral Theories
Reading: pages 65-75

Key terms:
moral theory
theories of value (p. 65)
theories of obligation (p. 65)
consequentialist theory
nonconsequentialist theory
utilitarianism
ethical egoism
categorical imperative
Kant's theory
natural law theory
divine command theory

Key ideas:
Be aware of the three criteria of an adequate moral theory (p. 71-74) Key terms:
statement
premises
conclusion
deductive
inductive
valid
invalid

Key ideas:
modus ponens
modus tollens
Hypothetical syllogism
implied premises

Fallacies:
appeal to authority
appeal to ignorance
straw man
appeal to the person
hasty generalization
Chapter 4: The Power of Moral Theories
Reading: pages 65-75

Key terms:
moral theory
theories of value (p. 65)
theories of obligation (p. 65)
consequentialist theory
nonconsequentialist theory
utilitarianism
ethical egoism
categorical imperative
Kant's theory
natural law theory
divine command theory

Key ideas:
Be aware of the three criteria of an adequate moral theory (p. 71-74) Psychological egoism
Principle of utility
Greatest happiness principle
Hedonic calculus (p. 84)
Act-utilitarianism (p. 84)
Rule-utilitarianism (p. 85)
Key ideas:
Be able to explain what ethical egoism is (p. 76-77)
Understand that utilitarianism is a consequentialist theory (p. 82-83) Know which form of utilitarianism was advocated by Jeremy Bentham and which form was advocated by J. S. Mill (p. 83-85) Understand the difference between lower and higher pleasures and know which philosopher proposed this distinction (p. 84-85) Know how Mill justifies his hierarchical ranking (p. 85)

Understand some of the weaknesses of utilitarianism – fairness, human rights, no-rest problem (p. 88-91). Understand some of the strengths of utilitarianism – consequences, impartiality, human welfare (p. 92-93). Chapter 6: Nonconsequentialist Theories

Attached Files:
EthicsKant.docx (18.35 KB)
Reading: pages 100-113
Key Terms:
Hypothetical Imperative
Categorical Imperative
Means-ends principle
Doctrine of Double effect
Chapter 7: Virtue...
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