Topics: Logic, Philosophy, First-order logic Pages: 17 (4208 words) Published: July 17, 2013
philosophy [fɪˈlɒsəfɪ]
n pl -phies
1. (Philosophy) the academic discipline concerned with making explicit the nature and significance of ordinary and scientific beliefs and investigating the intelligibility of concepts by means of rational argument concerning their presuppositions, implications, and interrelationships; in particular, the rational investigation of the nature and structure of reality (metaphysics), the resources and limits of knowledge (epistemology), the principles and import of moral judgment (ethics), and the relationship between language and reality (semantics) 2. (Philosophy) the particular doctrines relating to these issues of some specific individual or school the philosophy of Descartes 3. (Philosophy) the critical study of the basic principles and concepts of a discipline the philosophy of law 4. (Literary & Literary Critical Terms) Archaic or literary the investigation of natural phenomena, esp alchemy, astrology, and astronomy 5. any system of belief, values, or tenets

6. a personal outlook or viewpoint
7. serenity of temper

phi•los•o•phy (fɪˈlɒs ə fi) 
n., pl. -phies.
1. the rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct. 2. a system of philosophical doctrine: the philosophy of Spinoza. 3. the critical study of the basic principles and concepts of a particular branch of knowledge: the philosophy of science. 4. a system of principles for guidance in practical affairs: a philosophy of life. 5. a calm or philosophical attitude.

Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason,mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument.[3] In more casual speech, by extension, "philosophy" can refer to "the most basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes of an individual or group".

The word "philosophy" comes from the Ancient Greek φιλοσοφία (philosophia), which literally means "love of wisdom".[5][6][7] The introduction of the terms "philosopher" and "philosophy" has been ascribed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras.[8]

Branches of Philosophy

Main branches of philosophy
Traditionally, there are five main branches of philosophy. They are: • Metaphysics, which deals with the fundamental questions of reality. • Epistemology, which deals with our concept of knowledge, how we learn and what we can know. • Logic, which studies the rules of valid reasoning and argumentation • Ethics, or moral philosophy, which is concerned with human values and how individuals should act. • Aesthetics or esthetics, which deals with the notion of beauty and the philosophy of art.


Aesthetics is the area of philosophy which covers the concepts of beauty and art.

“Beauty is in the eye of the beholder”

There are two basic standings on the nature of beauty: objective and subjective judgement. Subjective judgement of beauty suggests that beauty is not the same to everyone — that which aesthetically pleases the observer is beautiful (to the observer). Alternatively, those partial to the objective description of beauty try to measaure it. They suggest that certain properties of an object create an inherent beauty — such as symmetry and balance. Both Plato and Aristotlesupported the objective judgement. Some, such as Immanuel Kant, took a middle path, holding that beauty is of a subjective nature, but there are qualities of beauty which have universal validity.

Classical and Modern Aesthetics

The classical concepts behind aesthetics saw beauty in nature, and that art should mimic those qualities found in nature. Aristotle'sPoetics describes this idea, which he develops from Plato's...
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