Philippine President - History

Topics: President of the United States, Sergio Osmeña, Elpidio Quirino Pages: 9 (2916 words) Published: October 15, 2014
Sergio Osmeña

Sergio Osmeña y Suico (September 9, 1878 – October 19, 1961), better known as Sergio Osmeña, Sr., was a Chinese Filipino politician who served as the 4th President of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946. He was Vice President under Manuel L. Quezon, and rose to the presidency upon Quezon's death in 1944, being the oldest Philippine president to hold office at age 65. A founder of Nacionalista Party, he was the first Visayan to become President of the Philippines. Prior to his succession to the Presidency in 1944, Osmeña served as Governor of Cebu from 1901–1907, Member and Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives from 1907–1922, and Senator from the 10th Senatorial District for thirteen years, in which capacity he served as Senate President pro tempore. In 1935, he was nominated to be the running-mate of Senate President Manuel L. Quezon for the presidential election that year. The tandem was overwhelmingly re-elected in 1941. He was the patriarch of the prominent Osmeña family, which includes his son (former Senator Sergio Osmeña, Jr.) and his grandsons (senators Sergio Osmeña III and John Henry Osmeña), ex-governor Lito Osmeña, and Cebu City mayor Tomas Osmeña. Congressional career

Congressional Career

House of Representatives

While governor, he ran for election to the first Philippine Assembly of 1907 and was elected Speaker of that body. Osmeña was 29 years old and already the highest-ranking Filipino official. He and another provincial politician, Manuel L. Quezon of Tayabas, set up the Nacionalista Party as a foil to the Partido Federalista of Manila-based politicians. The two would engage in a rivalry for political dominance ever since Senate

Osmeña was elected to the Philippine National Assembly in 1907 and remained a member of the lower house until 1922. In 1922 he was elected to the Senate. He went to the United States as part of the OsRox Mission in 1933, to secure passage of the Hare–Hawes–Cutting Independence Bill which was superseded by the Tydings–McDuffie Act in March 1934.

Presidency
Presidential styles of
Sergio S. Osmeña
Reference style
His Excellency
Spoken style
Your Excellency
Alternative style
Mr. President
Osmeña became president of the Commonwealth on Quezon's death in 1944. He returned to the Philippines the same year with General Douglas MacArthur and the liberation forces. After the war, Osmeña restored the Commonwealth government and the various executive departments. He continued the fight for Philippine independence. For the presidential election of 1946, Osmeña refused to campaign, saying that the Filipino people knew of his record of 40 years of honest and faithful service. He lost to Manuel Roxas, who won 54 percent of the vote and became president of the independent Republic of the Philippines.[citation needed] Administration and cabinet

War Cabinet 1944–45

President Osmeña with members of his cabinet. Front row; left to right: Jaime Hernandez, Secretary of Finance; President Osmeña; Col. Carlos P. Romulo, Resident Commissioner and Secretary of Information. Back row, left to right: Col. Mariano A. Erana, Judge Advocate General of the Philippine Army and Secretary of the Department of Justice, Labor, and Welfare; Dr. Arturo B. Rotor, Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce; Ismael Mathay, Budget and Finance Commissioner; Colonel Alejandro Melchor, Undersecretary of National Defense, representing General Basilio Valdes, Secretary of National Defense. On 8 August 1944, President Osmeña issued Executive Order 15-W reorganizing and consolidating the Executive Departments of the Commonwealth government. The reorganization of the government after it was reestablished on Philippine soil was undertaken with Executive Order No. 27; 27 February 1945.[citation needed]

OFFICE
NAME
TERM

President
Sergio Osmeña
1944–1946

Secretary of Finance
Jaime Hernández
August 24, 1944–February 27, 1945
Secretary of National Defense and...
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