What is mining?
Mining is the extraction (removal) of minerals and metals from earth. Manganese, tantalum, cassiterite, copper, tin, nickel, bauxite (aluminum ore), iron ore, gold, silver, and diamonds are just some examples of what is mined.
Mining is a money making business. Not only do mining companies prosper, but governments also make money from revenues. Workers also receive income and benefits.
History of Mining in the Philippines
First Mining Law: Spanish Royal Decree of 1837
Opening of Lepanto mines for copper and gold in 1864.
Second Mining Law: Philippine Bill of 1902
America uses the gold standard system to provide stability to its dollar-based monetary system, and their mining interest immediately exploited Philippine mining resources.
Third Mining Law: Commonwealth Act 137
Referred as the peak or the boom years when forty gold mines were operating and exporting as much as thirty tons annually.
Fourth Mining Law: Presidential Decree No. 467
Declared by former President Ferdinand Marcos and he gained full control over the mines since the previous treaties with the Americans had expired.
Fifth Mining Law: Philippine Mining Act of 1995
Has not yet been revoked up to the present, although it has ignited a lot of controversies.
PHILIPPINE MINING ACT OF 1995
This particular act was mainly instituted to “govern the exploration, development, utilization and processing of all mineral resources within the territory and exclusive economic zone of the Philippines.”
Chapter XI of Republic Act 7942, states that “all contractors and permittees shall strictly comply with all the mines safety rules and regulations as may be promulgated by the Secretary concerning the safe and sanitary upkeep of the mining operations and achieve waste-free and efficient development.
Three Major Kinds of Mining Rights:
1. Exploration Permit – grants the exclusive rights to the permittee to explore a tract of land based on an approved work