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By ghiebaylon Oct 07, 2013 1099 Words

American Period (1898-1946)

April 25, 1898- beginning of the US-Spain War. The Americans declared war against Spain on the allegation that Spain blew up the American warship named “Maine” causing the deaths and injuries of several Americans.

May 1, 1898- the Battle of Manila Bay. The Spaniards were defeated by the American naval fleet led by Commodore George Dewey.
May 18, 1898 - Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo arrived in Cavite from Hongkong through the assistance of the Americans.
June 12, 1898- Declaration of Philippine Independence in Kawit, Cavite.

For the first time, the national anthem was publicly played and the Philippine flag was raised and displayed. Julian Felipe composed the “Marcha Filipina Magdalo which became “Marcha Nacional Filipina”. This became the Philippine national anthem.

August 13, 1898 - a mock battle occurred between the Americans and the Spaniards. The battle was arranged to enable the Spaniards to honorably surrender to the Americans instead of surrendering to the Filipinos/Katipuneros.

Sept. 15, 1898- The Malolos Congress was convened in the Basilica of Barasoain, (Malolos, Bulacan)

Pedro A. Paterno was elected President of the Malolos Congress

Dec. 10, 1898- The Treaty of Paris was signed. By virtue of said treaty the Philippines was ceded by Spain to the US for US$20M.

Dec. 21, 1898- US President McKinley issued the “Benevolent Assimilation Proclamation” to extend the sovereignty of the US over the entire Philippines, even by force, if necessary.

Jan. 20, 1899- US Pres. McKinley appoints the first Philippine Commission, known as the Schurrman Commission.

Jan. 21, 1899-The Malolos Constitution was promulgated by Gen. Aguinaldo. The said constitution provides for a republican form of government with the legislature as the supreme branch. It also recognized and institutionalized the separation of the Church and the State.

January 23, 1899- The Malolos Republic was inaugurated. This is considered as the First Philippine Republic. This is also the first republican government in Asia.

Apolinario Mabini served as the Prime Minister. Considered as the “Brain of the Revolution.”

Emilio Aguinaldo was proclaimed as President of the Philippines.

Feb. 4, 1899- San Juan Bridge Incident. An American soldier, shot a Katipunero in the evening of Feb. 4. The following day Gen. Arthur MacArthur, Jr. ordered the American troops to advance against the Filipino troops.

This is the start of the Filipino-American War.

June 5, 1899- Assassination of Gen. Antonio Luna. Gen. Luna was the Director of War and the commander of the Filipino troops. He was assassinated in Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija by Kawit Company, Filipino soldiers loyal to Gen. Aguinaldo.

Oct. 12, 1899- The US mounts a full scale offensive against the Filipinos.

Dec. 2, 1899- Battle of Tirad Pass. Gen. Gregorio Del Pilar served as the rearguard of the Gen. Aguinaldo who was then fleeing from the pursuing American troops. Gen. Del Pilar volunteered to delay the advance of the American Troops to give Gen. Aguinaldo time to escape. Gen. Del Pilar died in this battle.

March 16, 1900- US Pres. McKinley appoints the second Philippine Commission, known as the Taft Commission.

March 23, 1901- Capture of Gen. Aguinaldo. He was captured in Palanan, Isabela by Americans and Macabebe soldiers. The Americans disguised themselves as prisoners of the Macabebe soldiers (who were loyal to the Americans). The Macabebe soldiers made it appear that they were the reinforcement requested by Gen. Aguinaldo.

Apr. 1, 1901- Gen. Aguinaldo took an oath of allegiance to the US.

July 4, 1901- A civil government is established in the Philippines with William Howard Taft as the first US Governor-General.

Sept., 1901- The first Filipino members of the second Philippine Commission were appointed, namely Trinidad Pardo de Tavera, Benito legarda and Jose Luzurriaga

April 16, 1902- Gen. Miguel Malvar of Batangas surrendered to the Americans.
1902- The Cooper Act, otherwise known as the Philippine Bill of 1902, was passed by the US, establishing the Philippine Assembly as the lower chamber of a bicameral legislature. The Philippine Commission makes up the upper house. The Cooper Act also provides for a bill of rights.

1903- Governor Taft enunciates the policy of The Philippines for the Filipinos. This policy promises to put the administration of the Philippines into the hands of Filipinos.
June 30, 1907- the first congressional election was held. 80 new assemblymen were elected.

Oct. 16, 1907- Philippine Assembly was inaugurated. Sergio Osmena as Speaker and Manuel Quezon as Majority Floor Leader

Nov. 11, 1909- William Cameron Forbes becomes Governor-General

Oct. 6, 1913- Governor Forbes was replaced by Francis Burton Harrison. He effected Filipinization. Appointed Filipinos as department secretaries.

Oct. 16, 1916- The Jones Law was enacted. It promises independence upon the establishment of a stable government. It abolishes the Philippine Commission and created the Senate.

Manuel Quezon was elected President of the Senate; and Sergio Osmena as Speaker of the House of Representatives. There are 24 members of the Senate, 22 of whom were elected by districts (2 each for the 11 districts) while 2 were appointed.

Nov. 30, 1930- The Communist Party of the Philippines is formally established. It was eventually declared illegal.

1930-Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act sponsored by Rep. Butler B. hare, Sen/ Harry B. Hawes and Sen. Bronson Cutting. It provides for a 10- year transition period before independence would be granted. This Act was secured by the Os-Rox Mission (Sergio Osmena and Manuel Roxas) but was opposed by Manuel Quezon.

1932- Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. became Gov. General of the Philippines

Jun. 15, 1933- The last US Governor-General of the Philippines, Frank Murphy, begins his term of office

Mar. 24, 1934- The Tydings-McDuffie Law, known as the Philippines Independence Law, is approved by US President Roosevelt. It was sponsored by Sen. Millard Tydings and Rep. John McDuffie. It provides for a ten year transition period of the Commonwealth of the Philippines under a constitution to be drafted by a Constitutional Convention, the members of which are to be elected by the people.

July 10, 1934- Election by the Filipino people of the 202 delegates to the Constitutional Convention is held in fulfillment of the Tydings-McDuffie law

July 30, 1934- The Philippine Constitutional Convention is inaugurated. Claro M. Recto was elected President.

Mar. 23, 1935 - US Pres. Franklin Roosevelt approved the Constitution.

May 14, 1935 - The Philippine electorate ratified the Constitution in a referendum

Sep. 17, 1935- The Philippines held its first presidential election.

Nov. 15, 1935-The Philippine Commonwealth is inaugurated with Manuel Quezon as the President and Sergio Osmena as the Vice-President. At this juncture, the office of the Governor General was abolished.

Nov. 11, 1941-The Philippines holds its 2nd presidential election under the Commonwealth government. Quezon and Osmena were re-elected.

Dec. 8, 1941-Immediately after the bombing of Pearl Harbor (Dec. 7), Japanese fighter planes attacked the Philippines as an ally of the US. Gen. Douglas MacArthur, the Commander of the US Armed Forces in the Far East, decided to retreat to the Bataan peninsula.

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