I. General Principles of Health Care
- has been one of man’s greatest adversaries
- Latin word “medicus”
- it is a HEALING ART
- Aims to help people become more active, live longer, live happier lives with less suffering and disability. - has become a part of the health care industry
* AT THE TURN OF THE 20th CENTURY (1900):
- men and women were frail at the age of 40.
- life expectancy was 47.3 years.
* BY THE AND OF THE 20th CENTURY:
- Medical Advances
- Life expectancy increased to 76 years.
- People in their 80’s and 90’s are independent and physically active. - Medical Advances have been expensive
HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE
- Diseases were warded off by incantations, dancing, magic, charms & talismans. TREPANNING
- the perimeter of the hole in the Skull is rounded off in growth of new bony tissue, indicating that the patients survived the operation. - Remedy for insanity, epilepsy and headache.
• Dr. John Clarke
- First physician to perform the operation in U.S. SPINNIG TREATMENT
- was one of many treatments that attempted to rid the body of mental through physical means. THE SPREAD EAGLE
- used to treat disorderly patients
- cold water was poured from a height over the person’s face until the patient is calm.
MILD ELECTRIC SHOCK
- used to stimulate the muscles and the mind
- used to cure mental illness called FARADIZATION.
* Cleaning and treating wounds by CAUTERY (burning or searing tissue), POULTICES, and SUTURES. * Resetting dislocations and fractures by using SPLINTS to support or immobilize broken bones. * Discovery of NARCOTICS and stimulating properties of certain plant extracts. ○ DIGOXIN – a heart stimulant extracted from
FOXGLOVE (Digitalis purpurea). ○ OPIUM POPPY (Papaver somniferum)
- source of may opiates including MORPHINE
(heroine), THEBANE, CODEINE, PAPAVERINE and
HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS
* 11.6 Million – work in healthcare in other countries
* 778, 000 – Physicians
* 2.1 Million – Nurses
* 160,000 – Dentists
* Research, teaching or administration of medical facilities. PHARMACIST
* Has a unique body of knowledge and skills to contribute in our healthcare system. *Dispenses appropriate drug product and has the knowledge to assure safe and rational use of drugs. EARLY FUNCTIONS OF PHARMACISTS
1. Assisting in the selection of appropriate drug therapy.
2. Preparing, compounding and manufacturing drugs for individualized patients. 3. Dispensing and packaging the prescribed drug products including proper labeling. 4. Advising and educating patients on proper use of drugs.
5. Monitoring the outcome and responses of patients to the effect of drugs, both beneficial and adverse. 6. Serving the community resource person on drug and health information.
THE TEN STAR PHARMACISTS
* Pharmaceutical Care Giver
* Life-long learner
* Agent of Positive Change
CONCERNS AMONG HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS
(1) Potential abuse, misuses and inappropriate use of drugs. (2) Increase in health care cost (3) Patient suffering
THE PATIENT-ORIENTED PROFESSIONAL
- Able to apply and provide drug knowledge to improve drug uses in the health care system.
- To attain success in the goals of therapy.
- Pharmacist must approach the patient-counseling encounter as a HELPER and an ECUDATOR.
THE TRADITIONAL PHARMACIST
- Involved in the preparation and dispensing of medications. - At the direction of the physician.
- Strongly allied with the medical profession.
- View that the health professional should be in control of the patient.
- Shift in the model of Pharmacy
- From the focus on the medication to a focus on the patient. Need for a shift in the pharmacist’s approach. - From the...
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