PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SODIUM SALICYLATE OINTMENT INTENDED FOR TOPICAL AND SYSTEMIC DELIVERY
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF PHARMACY (B. PHARM) OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA.
DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY
FACULTY OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA.
PROJECT SUPERVISOR: DR. I. V. ONYISHI
This is to certify this project was carried out by Muobike Makuo and submitted to the Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
DR. I. V. ONYISHI
Head of Department
In loving memory of my Mum, lady S.N. Muobike. My dad Sir Engr. Muobike, I love you infinitely. My Family, bound by a lot more than blood.
To God almighty, strenghting my weakness, I owe everything.
Hearfelt gratitude to my supervisor and professional role-model Dr. I.V. Onyishi, for his patience in my depth of distractions, God bless and keep you Sir. Special thanks to Dr. Omeje, for his genuine academic and life counsel. Thanks To all the staff of Pharmaceutical Technology for their support and kind words. To my siblings, Nnenne and ari-boy and our entire family, may we all grow from strength to strength. Nkechi and Ndidi my adopted sisters, I love you plenty.
Okegbe Kelvin and Egwatu Victor, my bossom friends and patners, thanks for sticking around….
The project developed sodium salicylate ointment with a view to achieving both topical and systemic release through co-solvency preparation technique. The effects of two ointment bases: shea butter and petrolatum in the presence of propylene glycol, and menthol in the release of sodium salicylate was studied. Release studies of the two ointment bases were. Characteristic physical and organoleptic tests were performed on both formulations, including melting temperature, pH, net weight uniformity, and membrame permeability. Texture, appearance and spread was checked. The texture was a bit gritty, significantly minty, appearance was yellowish for shea based, and white for petrolatum based, both batches spread significantly well, and were noticeably difficult to was off with water. The formulations using petrolatum were generally more by volunteer test subjects, compared to the shea butter based formulation. The melting temperature was uniform across batches. Petrolatum formulations melted at close to body temperature, 38 degrees while the shea based had an average melting point of 36.5 degrees Celsius. The pHs on formulation of the shea based formulations were Alkaline, ranging from 7.39-7.95. While petrolatum based formulations were only slightly alkaline (6.95-7.12). All formulations noticeable increased in alkalinity on storage. The net weights ranged from 69-71g across batches. Consistency tests showed a range of 190-210mm and 203-215mm for and shea butter respectively. And finally, preliminary membrane permeability tests indicate a faster rate of drug release from the shea butter, than those4 prepared with petrolatum.
LIST OF TABLES
NET WEIGHT UNIFORMITY
SP ON PREPARATION PH
SP ON STORAGE PH
SKIN PENETRATION TESTS
LIST OF FIGURE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Tables
List of Figure
Table of Contents
Chapter one: Introduction/Overview
Classification of Ointement Bases
Properties of the Ointment Bases
Some Additives used in...
References: Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. 3rd edition ed. A.H. Kebbe, Pharmaceutical Press, London, UK, 2000 pp 334-335.
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