Phar Mor

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Mungkin pertanyaan ini akan menjadi sangat mustahil, bila fraud memang diciptakan oleh manajemen perusahaan. Sementara, salah satu tujuan internal audit adalah justru untuk menemukan penyimpangan, baik akibat dari misstatement yang disengaja (fraud) maupun yang tidak. Padahal menurut laporan “2002 Report to Nation on Occupatinal Fraud and Abuses” menyatakan bahwa aktivitas internal audit dapat menekan 35 % terjadinya fraud.

Jawaban pertanyaan diatas akan lebih sulit lagi ditemukan, bila pihak top manajemen justru berperan aktif dengan cara mendesain tugas-tugas internal audit diperusahaannya menjadi tugas yang ” sekedar” untuk menilaiperformance suatu bagian, bukan bekerja untuk memenuhi fungsi internal control. Dengan demikian, pihak manajemen berupaya membuat fraud menjadi tidak tersentuh oleh internal audit, bahkan menjadi mustahil untuk ditemukan.

Biasanya, selain mendesain agar aktivitas internal audit menjadi lumpuh, fraud yang masif dilakukan melalui trik pembuatan laporan keuangan ganda. Laporan keuangan yang telah dimanipulasi, disiapkan secara khusus untuk dikonsumsi oleh auditor, sedangkan laporan yang aktual – laporan yang benar-benar menggambarkan kondisi aktual keuangan perusahaan - hanya didistribusikan untuk kalangan eksklusif dilingkungan top manajemen.

Masif Fraud di Phar Mor Inc.

Sejarah mencatat kasus Phar Mor Inc. sebagai kasus fraud yang me-legenda dikalangan auditor keuangan. Eksekutif di Phar Mor secara sengaja melakukan fraud untuk mendapatkan keuntungan financial yang masuk ke saku pribadi individu di jajaran top manajemen perusahaan.

Phar Mor Inc, termasuk perusahaan retail terbesar di Amerika Serikat yang dinyatakan bangkrupt pada bulan Agustus 1992 berdasarkan undang-undangan U.S. Bangkruptcy Code.

Pada masa puncak kejayaannya, Phar Mor mempunyai 300 outlet besar di hampir seluruh negara bagian dan memperkerjakan 23,000 orang karyawan. Produk yang dijual sangat bervariasi, dari obat-obatan, furniture, electronik,

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