Personnel management also known as Human resource management (HRM) is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets – the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business. The terms “human resource management” and “human resources” (HR) have largely replaced the term “personnel management” as a description of the processes involved in managing people in organizations. In simple sense, HRM means employing people, developing their resources, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirement. It is the administrative discipline of hiring and developing employees so that they become more valuable to the organization. It includes (1) conducting job analysis, (2) planning personnel needs, and recruitment, (3) selecting the right people for the job, (4) orienting and training, (5) determining and managing wages and salaries, (6)providing benefits and incentives, (7) appraising performance, (8) resolving disputes, (9) communicating with all employees at all levels.
THE EVALUATION OF TESTING PROGRAM
Evaluation is the structured interpretation and giving of meaning to predicted or actual impacts of proposals or results. It looks at original objectives, and at what are either predicted or what was accomplished and how it was accomplished. So evaluation can be formative that is taking place during the development of a concept or proposal, project or organization, with the intention of improving the value or effectiveness of the proposal, project, or organization. It can also be summative, drawing lessons from a completed action or project or an organization at a later point in time or circumstance. Evaluation is inherently a theoretically informed approach (whether explicitly or not), and consequently any particular definition of evaluation would have be tailored to its context - the theory, approach, needs, purpose, and methodology of the evaluation process itself. Having said this, evaluation has been defined as: A systematic, rigorous, and meticulous application of scientific methods to assess the design, implementation, improvement, or outcomes of a program. It is a resource-intensive process, frequently requiring resources, such as, evaluator expertise, labour, time, and a sizeable budget. 'The critical assessment, in as objective a manner as possible, of the degree to which a service or its component parts fulfils stated goals' (St Leger and Walsworth-Bell). The focus of this definition is on attaining objective knowledge, and scientifically or quantitatively measuring predetermined and external concepts. 'A study designed to assist some audience to assess an object's merit and worth' (Stufflebeam). In this definition the focus is on facts as well as value laden judgements of the programs outcomes and worth. Program evaluation is a systematic method for collecting, analyzing, and using information to answer questions about projects, policies and programs, particularly about their effectiveness and efficiency. In both the public and private sectors, stakeholders often want to know whether the programs they are funding, implementing, voting for, receiving or objecting to are producing the intended effect. While program evaluation first focuses around this definition, important considerations often include how much the program costs per participant, how the program could be improved, whether the program is worthwhile, whether there are better alternatives, if there are unintended outcomes, and whether the program goals are appropriate and useful. Evaluators help to answer these questions, but the best way to answer the questions is for the evaluation to be a joint project between evaluators and stakeholders. The process of evaluation is considered to be a relatively recent phenomenon. However,...
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