Sigmund Freud’s psychodynamic theory has many strengths, however it lacks empirical evidence. Carl Jung was the creator of the psychoanalytical psychology, and unlike Freud who focused on the self or the inner workings of the mind and conscious, Jung focused on a network of interacting systems that want to achieve harmony. Jung created the concept of the psych while Freud made the concept of the id, ego, and super ego. While there are many theories in psychology that have laid great foundation for the emergence of psychology, Freud’s Psychoanalysis and Jung’s Psychoanalytical approach have contributed an enormous amount of theories, critical thinking, and development of treatment techniques.
Freud’s Psychoanalyses focuses on three parts of personality, the id, ego, and super ego. The Id operates according to the pleasure principle, which seeks to immediate tension reduction (Engler, B. (2009). The ego follows the reality principle, or acts as an intermediary between the id and the world. The superego involves the moral standards of society, values and ideals. Freud’s theory also involved two motivational drives, which are Eros and Thantos. Eros is the sex drive and thantos is the aggressive and death instinct. According to Freud “Personality is shaped as the drives are modified by different conflicts at different times in childhood” (Engler, B. 2009, pp. 48). Freud’s Theory was unconscious, meaning that the id, ego, and superego all occurred in the unconscious. Individuals do not know what is happening in the unconscious and it is our underlying motivation for our behaviors. Freud said that all behavior had a cause, whether it was conscious or unconscious and that our behavior was largely determined by our unconscious (McLeod, S. 2007). Unlike the behaviorists, the psychodynamic approach was not empirical, it actually ignored hard science and instead focused on how to get inside an individuals head in order to make sense of their relationships and how they experience the world (McLeod, S. 2007). The psychodynamic approach is largely deterministic as well, there is little free will involved, meaning a person has little power over himself or herself in this theory. The concepts of the Freud’s theory are subjective and largely unscientific in the analysis of human behavior, and it is heavily criticized for this. It is also criticized for being too deterministic by the humanistic as well because there is no personal agency involved (McLeod, S. (2007). The last criticism of Freud’s theory his how he arrived at his theories which were from his case studies, but the major problem with case studies is that only one person can be studied at one time and his finding were inappropriately applied to a wide general population (Engler, B. 2009).
Carl Jung developed the school of though known as analytical psychology. In Jung’s approach there are two attitudes toward reality and four functions, which come together to form the personality, or Psyche as he named it. The Term psyche was used to emphasize, the unconscious and conscious processes, not one or the other. The psyche included feelings, sensations, wishes and so on. The ego, in Jung’s theory is in the conscious mind, and is responsible for feelings of identity and continuity. The ego also is involved with thoughts, perceptions, feelings, and memories in Jung’s theory. Jung also developed the Personal unconscious and the personal unconscious is where memories have been put aside and may be retrieved easily and it also involved repressed memories. The collective unconscious is shared not personal like the personal unconscious. The collective unconscious refers to how human beings share certain potentialities. Other aspects that make up the personality in Psychoanalytical approach are archetypes and there are several archetypes that are influential. The persona is the role...
References: Engler, B. (2009). Personality theories (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
McLeod, S. (2007). Simply psychology. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/psychodynamic.html
University of Phoenix. (2009). Theories of personality. Retrieved from University of Phoenix, Psych405 website.
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