Compare & Contrast Personality
Personality is an intriguing component in psychology vital for perception of human beings. Different theories of personality adopt different levels of explaining features of human beings. Two theories meet the conditions of personality and theories of development, Freud's psychoanalytic theory later followed by Erikson's psychosocial theory.
Freud's theory of personality development relates to his theories of personality structure and motivation. His topographical model of personality organisation in psychoanalysis saw psychic life represented by three levels of consciousness.
Methods of free-association, analysis of slips of the tongue and interpretation of dreams identified aspects of the unconscious mind.
The conscious mind comprises of sensations and experiences apparent to the individual it is a small, limited aspect of personality which is conscious briefly yet can be such effects can cross sensory modalities.
Both psychologists agree to a biological basis to development which is genetically determined. The genetic stages also show in both theorists’ stages. Freud believes that the baby becomes gradually socialised gaining an ego and superego.
For Erikson at all times an organism (id), (ego) and member of society (superego). The individual has to be ready in all dimensions to move on.
Erikson's epigenetic principle sees stages as pre-determined. He looks at the healthy personality. Freud stresses conflict and neuroticy.
The nature of Freud's work is the major difference as he made judgement during Victorian times as well as using limited samples of middles class children and women.
The behaviorists approach views personality as a pattern of learned behaviors acquired through either classical (Pavlovian) or operant (Skinnerian) conditioning and shaped by reinforcement in the form of rewards or punishment. A relatively recent extension of behaviorism, the cognitive-behavioral approach emphasizes the...
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