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DATE: 23 JUNE 2013

PERSONAL LEARNING PAPER(PLP)-1
Name: RAVI RANJAN Roll number: H13096 Session in brief: Our first term started with the Organisational Behaviour (OB-I) lecture. It’s being taught by Prof. M G Jomon. Initially he briefed us about what OB is about. He explained about the assessment weightage distribution, class participation and discussion forum. We had a discussion regarding the difference between theory and practice. Later we had an exercise pertaining to observing the behaviour of a classmate whom we had very small conversation. Learnings: We had a healthy discussion regarding the Theory Vs. Practice/facts relevance. Theory is used to generalise the facts we observe in our day to day life. It provides us the necessary platform for building up further views and an important part of the pedagogy e.g. Automation in aircrafts are based on theory but still people prefer to fly in the aircrafts flying on automated mode. Whereas a fact is used to support the theory. Life is full of deviations from the idealistic model hence there is no standard theory which can actually predict accurately the future outcome. We had a class activity regarding knowing the behaviour of a relatively unfamiliar classmate. Here I came to understand that while observing the personality traits of a person, we actually seek our projection in them. We explore to which extent our traits are in sync with each other. We deduce their behaviour by their likes and dislikes also. Accordingly we tune our behaviour with that person. The observation actually comes with an inherent bias in which we seek our compatibility with others rather than seeing the personality as an absolute entity. The actual behaviour which my counterpart was able to identify was actually superficial I.e. deals with the outlook with the person not in depth of personality. We generally seek and observe what the person is observing and then tunes accordingly. We try to see our projection in him. This is a way helps as we generally get familiar and friendly if we find out similarities among us. This thus helps us to associate us with their likes and dislikes which further enhances the understanding of the person. Action plan and evidence of behavioural change: Participating in the class activity has actually made me self-aware of the thinking process which I generally apply to the new persons while interacting. I am now trying to construct a thought process, which actually focuses on the uniqueness of the personality rather than similarity. I have started observing the interview videos of famous personalities such as Steve Jobs, Oprah Winfrey etc. to deduce uniqueness in their behaviour.

DATE: 26 JUNE 2013

PERSONAL LEARNING PAPER(PLP)-2
Name: RAVI RANJAN Roll number: H13096 Session in brief: In this session we studied about the behaviour of an individual and how it’s related with the external environment and the expectations. We also discussed about the factors defining and affecting the performance of a person. We conversed over different roles we generally play in our day to day life, managerial effectiveness, stress definition & creative tensions. Stretch and stress aspects were also pondered upon. Learnings: In this session we learned about the impact of actions and reactions over one’s behaviour. Generally the actions of animals are instinctive. This is what differentiates us from them, as most of the times our decisions are based upon priorities and rationale. We think rationally & logically to act to a situation. Behaviour actually leads to a performance and our competencies are actually measured by the behaviour we exhibit, as it determines who an individual is with all its uniqueness & individuality. High performance is key to growth in the society. It is fuelled by aspirations and thoughts of what I am & what I want to be. Roles generally come with the expectations. The expectations formulate the requirements of our roles, be it from superiors, colleagues or parents. Performance is not a matter of choice because it linked with the external entities who expect something from individuals. Achieving unreasonable expectations enhances our performance. Stretch generally helps in developing competencies. We also discussed that laziness affects our performance and its actually a disposition to take rest when the person is not even tired. It becomes the general myth that high performance will leads to burnouts or stress and the person won’t be able to work productively. On the contrary, high performance comes from high motivation and inner urge to work better. Stress actually appears when a person is not able to give his 100% and becomes unable to meet the deadlines. A concept of creative tension thus plays a huge role to a personal efficiency. If he takes that with the right spirit and perseverance, he becomes eligible for the increased responsibility and thereby earns high respects with increase in performance. Thus creative tension helps the person to explore the unexplored by performing even in adverse situations. Action plan and evidence of behavioural change: Session helped me to understand the core areas of improvements to enhance performance. I am analysing what roles I’m assigned with either knowingly or unknowingly. As per that I’m building over my credibility by doing as much as possible I can.

Date:01 JULY 2013

PERSONAL LEARNING PAPER(PLP)-3
Name: RAVI RANJAN Roll number: H13096 Session in brief: In this session we have learnt about the various aspects of an organisation e.g. requirements, competitions, values that bind it etc. We also debated upon the civilization & culture contrast and put forth the roles of a manager. Later on we focussed on the facets of management skills and OB models. What have I learned? We started our discussion with the requirements of an organisation such as competitions and the contributions attained by coordinated efforts. They act as frameworks for creating values and wealth for a nation which ultimately contributes to the growth & development of a country. It also enhances the socio-economic stature of a nation. We also debated over the difference between a civilization and a culture. A civilization leaves a legacy to be followed by the succeeding generations; we generally recognise it with the heritages left by our forefathers whereas anything commonly done or shared is a culture which generally remains at small level. There are various types of an organisation. Institutions are organisations those are on the verge of becoming permanent, they become institutionalised; on the other hand a normal organisation is temporary to achieve a goal. An organisation is consciously coordinated group looking to achieve a common goal. Moving on to the managerial facet, a manager is a person who works for an organisation and successfully achieves goal through other people. Various aspects of a managerial competency involve planning, organising, leading and control of the workforce. The roles of managers include Interpretation, information, resourcefulness. There are also hard & soft dimension of managerial responsibility. According to Katz model, Conceptual, technical & human skills are must require for a manager. For segregating the managerial performance efficiency, efficacy & effectiveness are being measure. Efficiency is giving max. Output in min. time, resource & efforts; efficacy is the potency or potential moreover effectiveness is ability to meet a goal. Action plan and evidence of behavioural change: On understanding the various aspects of an organisation I studied more about institutionalised organisations. I’m emphasising to be more efficient & effective on my various tasks such as group activities & projects undertaken.

Date:03.07.2013

PERSONAL LEARNING PAPER(PLP)-4
Name: RAVI RANJAN Roll number: H13096 Session in brief: In this session we were exploring one’s own understanding of capabilities & limitations. We discussed about the diversity in an organisation, the different types of diversities. Various companies PSU, MNC’s thought behind keeping the workforce diversity. We also pondered upon the potential & possibility of human resources. Learnings: In this session we’ve learnt the rationale behind the workforce diversity. It came out as a necessity for the globalized company for having a diverse workforce in order to succeed & work seamlessly. We discussed about the various levels of diversity i.e. surface level which includes age, gender; deep level which incorporates values, personality, work preferences etc. The effectiveness of a person can from intellectual ability or physical ability. We participated in a questionnaire which revealed us various intelligences and our standings there such as kinaesthetic, interpersonal, Intra personal, logical/mathematical, musical, verbal and Visual. We rated ourselves on these scales and came to know more about ourselves. We never explored ourselves that much hence didn’t know the actual strengths of ourselves. Also we learnt about the difference between skill & competencies. As skills can be demonstrated but competency can’t be; also competency is 100% acquired whereas the skill can be practiced and honed up by repetition. The most prominent example for the competency and skill can be Sachin Tendulkar. Batting is his skill which he had enhanced with the course of time but his behaviour in handling the critical situation on the field as well as off the field made him a very competent player. David McClelland has thus formulized that the testing has to be done for the competence of a person not for the intelligence. As it’s obvious that a skill will make one proficient in a specific task whereas a competence will more generic and leads to higher efficiency.

Action plan and evidence of behavioural change: Session helped me to understand the core areas of improvements to enhance performance and the strengths I actually bear. I am analysing what roles I can perform well & polish my skills in. As per that I’m building over my competencies by doing as much as possible I can.

DATE: 15 JULY 2013

PERSONAL LEARNING PAPER(PLP)-5
Name: RAVI RANJAN Roll number: H13096 Session in brief: The session was focussed on the learnings and how different aspects of behaviour & experiences get influenced. It was also informative in context of various theories of learning such as negative reinforcement theory and its correlation. Then through various role plays we understood various OB models in practice by various organizations. Learnings: Learning is attaining new, or modifying and reinforcing existing, knowledge, behaviours. It can also be acquiring of skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information. The range of actions we exhibit in conjunction with the environment defines our behaviour. Thus, behaviours which we possess are learnt behaviours. We consciously or incautiously learn the behaviour which we show in our day to day lives. An experience brings about a permanent change in our behaviour. Thus by experience we learn, and through this learning we imbibe things which are suitable to us and thus evolves our behaviour. Through experience we form a reflection which eventually grows to a conceptualization and ultimately leads to planning. There are theories which define various types of learnings. Negative reinforcement theory is one such theory of learning. Reinforcement is a strengthening of a specific behaviour due to its association with a stimulus. In this reinforcement, in order to avoid answering the questions of a teacher a student can smile while question is being asked to the class. When he/she observes that even after repeatedly doing the same thing he’s not getting caught he’ll develop it as his behaviour. Thus a negative behaviour is encouraged. Later on through role play, groups enacted various work scenarios of different organizations, superimposing it with a suitable OB model. It helped in identifying various individual, group & organizational variables in such scenarios. Action plan and evidence of behavioural change Through this session I was able to conceive the various aspects which influence one’s behaviour and through this behaviour we come to interact with the other personalities. If I come across the behaviour change, I can immediately identify what had triggered me to do the response like that. Through this correlation I‘ll be able to avoid negative reinforcements and imbibe the positive attitude. Moreover, identifying the dependant variables and independent variables can help me to identify & quantify the effects of various practices or new initiatives.

DATE: 17 JULY 2013

PERSONAL LEARNING PAPER(PLP)-6
Name: RAVI RANJAN Roll number: H13096 Session in brief: Session was based on the attitude one possess and various components of an attitude. Cognitive dissonance theory was discussed in context of attitude of a person. It also focussed on the process of attitude formation. The difference between intent and the input as perceived by a person was pondered upon. The idea of selective perception was discussed and being evaluated. Learnings: The session started with writing of a trust based instance which is being shown by a friend or a family member. It was thought provoking as this can be deduced by the action followed as the consequence of following/ non following of it. This actually shows the attitude of that person towards us. There are three basic components of an attitude which are generally levels of attitude formation also. A cognitive component remains associated with the understanding level of a person, which perceives effect or aftereffect of some actions. Affective component analyse the effect of an action on that particular person. It basically deals with the reaction of an action and if adverse ways to get out of it. Thirdly, the behaviour component incorporates the behavioural action in response to the specific action. This actually a most important situation as it builds the basic block of the attitude formation. The theory of cognitive dissonance tells about the incompatibility of a person to a particular situation and its action over the behaviour. Attitude of a person towards an object/ person can be in state of readiness, the disposition and the enduring organisation. L L Thurston defined the attitude as the sum total of the inclination, feeling, bias, fear, about any specific topic. There is also a concept of selective perception. In this a person perceives the action only as how much it’s favourable or unfavourable to him. It’s being evaluated only keeping self as priority and being evaluated and thus an opinion is formed which transforms into the attitude of that person. Action plan and evidence of behavioural change Understanding the attitude is a very important aspect of learning oneself as it only leads to the success by knowing about our strengths, weaknesses and opinions. The session motivated me to explore the attitude of my loved ones and how it could’ve triggered. Moreover a cause & effect can be established, and if found deviating can be corrected in the future before it becomes an attitude.

DATE: 22 JULY 2013

PERSONAL LEARNING PAPER(PLP)-7
Name: RAVI RANJAN Roll number: H13096 Session in brief: Session focussed on the attitude of a person and how opinions reflect or form attitudes. The change that has to be brought for modifying the attitude. The correlation of job or organization with the attitude of the person & who’s the main actor for bringing the change. We also discussed job performance as in role or extra role behaviour. Learnings: The productivity of an organization and a person depends upon the attitude of the person. When the attitude of a person is in sync with the company’s culture and goals he’ll surely got to succeed. In order to modify the attitude of a person for suitability is a very difficult job. The only person can bring that change is the person himself; as until unless he wants, no one can change his attitude. Moreover when trying to change someone’s attitude his requirements has to be rerouted through the change we want to see in the person, then only one can appreciate and adapt the change of attitude. Job attitude can be reflected from five different features namely: job involvement, Organizational commitment; Job satisfaction; Perceived Organization; Employee engagement. The job involvement is explained as the identity with him/herself with work, as the part of the work. It involves time, work and people orientation as such spends time, work & people expertise in job furnishing. The organisational commitment is identifying oneself with the top management & organisation. It also incorporates the team orientation of a person. Job satisfaction involves the recognition for doing the job perfectly and going extra mile. It also involves the development & training with the time & various benefits provided by the company. Attitude competency in alignment with the requirement of the job provides success. The job performance comprises of the in-role behaviour as well as the extra role behaviour. There is a very prominent correlation between the job satisfaction & the in- role behaviour and the job commitment with extra role behaviour. In all the facets of the job attitudes, the job satisfaction is the resultant variable of the efforts put up by the employee and the attitude depicted while working. Action plan and evidence of behavioural change The attitude plays an important part in our behaviour and the success of the work we are into whether be any kind of profession we’re involved in. Modifying one’s attitude is a herculean task, but if properly channelized, is possible. I’ve also identified that I’ve careless attitude towards few of the daily works, now as I’m getting very less time I’m trying my level best to ratify it and putting my all efforts in it.

DATE: 22 JULY 2013

PERSONAL LEARNING PAPER(PLP)-8
Name: RAVI RANJAN Roll number: H13096 Session in brief: In this session we’ve discussed the case study of a person named Abhinav and his tryst with the attitude related problem. The case explored the various environmental factors which affects one’s mind set and which uncomfortable situation in the professional as well as personal life. Learnings: The case study of the Abhinav involves a typical situation of attitude problem in related to the work environment. He joined the company, was appreciated for the work he was doing and being involved in the things beyond his scope of the work but comparison of his qualification and the routine job of other colleagues made him cynical. He developed a superiority complex about himself due to his qualification. This cynical attitude was his main problem which led to his near expulsion from the work situation. Abhinav was a brilliant student but become sarcastic of others. Such people bear various positive qualities in themselves. They are confident on their work, generally intelligent and which bring the pride in them. They are perfectionist and like to do the work their way and always believe in doing well, let it be any job. They are planned and organised in their work and take ample time in that before starting with the job. They are straight forward in expressing their views. Keeping these qualities in view, we can superimpose a solution keeping in mind how these things can be exploited in changing the attitude of the person. The solution was to provide him with a challenging job. This new challenges keep him preoccupied with his work and gives him less time to being involved in comparing his work or stature with others. Moreover this provide him growth opportunities, if this can be linked with performance based incentive schemes can bring motivation in him. Integrating a star performer and managing a talent is a very demanding job. Companies require performers more than the performers require companies to work; hence the focus should be in integrating them in the system. Ample platform has to be provided to share an employee’s grievances whether personal or professional so that productivity remains unaffected. Action plan and evidence of behavioural change Attitude can change with the environment agents and the people around us. Generally if something happens unpleasant or unexpected, I generally go in guilt or remorse mood. This can be changed, as talking with others or involving oneself in some challenging job gives you a platform to excel in other areas.

DATE: 29 JULY 2013

PERSONAL LEARNING PAPER(PLP)-9
Name: RAVI RANJAN Roll number: H13096 Session in brief: Session is based upon the personality development of a person. Various stages of the personality development were discussed. The Sigmund Freud theory on psychosexual development was discussed. Oedipus and Electra complex was discussed. Learnings: The personality of a person is not engraved in his/her action since birth. It’s being cautiously or impetuously gets evolved in the day to day life and forms our personality getting depicted as our behaviour. While understanding one’s personality involves sum total of ways an individual reacts, works, interacts with others under various situations. Sigmund Freud has done breakthrough in putting forth the process of personality development. His psychoanalysis has involved different stages of the life and the actions which incorporates or assimilates to be final personality. According to his theory of psychosexual development, Id, super ego & ego are three main psyche components. According to this model of the psyche, the id is the set of uncoordinated instinctual trends; the super-ego plays the critical and moralizing role; and the ego is the organized, realistic part that arbitrates between the desires of the id and the super-ego. The super-ego can stop us from doing certain things that id may want to do. The Id caters to the primary motives such as hunger for survival of person; rage for protection of oneself and sex for procreation. The super ego governs internalised norms, morality, taboos & superordinate; its acts as conscious keeper. Ego provides a sense of self. The super ego of a person develops with the environment he lives on as the morality of the society in which he lives becomes his morality. There are complexes such as Oedipus & Electra in which boys develops a hatred/competition with their father & girls with their mother for the attention of mother and father respectively. Homosexuality can also be attributed to the failure to resolve Oedipus or Electra complex in a person. There are five stages of psychosexual development: Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency and Genital. These are based on various age level and erogenous zones such as mouth, bowel, genital, dormant sexual feeling & sexual interest maturity. Action plan and evidence of behavioural change There are various determinants of the personality. It could be influenced by psychosexual development, hereditary traits, environment lived in and situations of involvement. Thus I can relate my personality with them & can find out the determinant responsible for such kind of personality. This also makes me more emphatic to other persons and understanding of their personality.

DATE: 30 JULY 2013

PERSONAL LEARNING PAPER(PLP)-10
Name: RAVI RANJAN Roll number: H13096 Session in brief: The session was based upon the instruments for measuring the personality patterns or trends. One such instrument is MBTI- Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. The suitability of job profile, personality traits & various areas of improvement can be depicted using it. It’s based on the predictable and differing pattern of normal human behaviour. Learnings: The personality of each and every person differs as we all have different priorities, goals and requirements. Hence our personality gets moulded according to that. But still there are predictable patterns in our personalities. An MBTI is an instrument for measuring personality patterns & trends. It is based on Carl Jung’s theory of personality preferences. It is used to understand the personality differences of normal persons. It takes into account the temperament of a person as it’s the only property of personality that doesn’t changes with the time unlike mood, motive or attitude. It analyses our preferences and the influence of environmental factors. MBTI explores one’s personality in four dimensions: the ways of energising oneself; the attention towards outside environment; Decision making process and life style. Energising methods categorises individuals in extrovert and introvert; attention can be attributed to sensing or intuitive personality; decision makers can be thinking types or sensing types; way of life style can be of judging & perceiving. This brings up a total of 16 different types of personalities. This helps in one identify their core areas of expertise and find out the most attractive occupations. This also helps in understanding various areas of improvements and potential strengths. Not only professional aspect but also personal as most of the time we don’t even recognise the personality traits. Thus the perception of others can become adverse to them even if they have good intentions. Hence understanding one’s own temperament is very important. Action plan and evidence of behavioural change Subsequent to undergoing the MBTI I came to know that I’m an INTJ personality i.e. introverted intuition with extraverted thinking. Though I had understanding of my personality but the improvement process to be followed was something for which I never thought of. The career path chosen by me was basically for career progression not of after thinking the suitability. This result has equipped me with a tool which can help me in my future progression and also improve my personality to help me achieve the great successes and accomplishments in my life.

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