* Principles for infection control for the nurse and patient during care
NATURE OF INFECTION:
* Pathogen-infectious agents * Colonization- present or invaded host, grows and multiplies but does not cause infection * Communicable disease- transmitted from one person to the other
CHAIN OF INFECTION: a. Agent- residents for transient flora i. To cause disease depends on: 1. Does (number of organisms) 2. Virulence (ability to survive) 3. Ability to enter and survive 4. Host resistance b. Reservoir- source for pathogen growth but it may or may not survive ii. Needed ideal food source, aerobic, anaerobic, ideal amount of water, ideal temperature, ideal pH, ideal exposure to light c. Portal of Exit- any breaks in the skin and leave his number and; drainage is a potential portal sect that; cough or sneeze in; urine; G.I. tract (if normal flora in one area moves to another area; or eliminations); reproductive tract (semen or vaginal secretions); blood d. Mode of transmission- table 34 – 2, page 645 iii. Contact-direct, indirect, droplets iv. Airborne- small droplets suspended in air v. Vehicles- contaminated items, water, drugs, blood, who did vi. Vector- external and internal mechanical transfers (i.e. flies, mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, parasites) e. portal of entry-organisms enter the body through the same routes used for exiting f. susceptible hosts-a degree of resistance to the pathogen; infection does not develop until individuals immune is weakend and/or dose increases
THE INFECTIOUS PROCESS:
Nurse is responsible for properly administered antibiotics, monitoring the response to drug therapy, and hygiene in standard precautions.
Course of infection by stage- box 34–1, page 646 i. incubation period-entrance of pathogen j. Prodromal State- nonspecific signs and symptoms;