Chapter 4 : The Period of Enlightenment (1872-1898)
After 300 years of passivity under Spanish rule, the Filipino spirit reawakened when the 3 priests Gomez, Burgos and Zamora were guillotined without sufficient evidence of guilt. This occurred on the 17th of February. This was buttressed with the spirit of liberalism when the Philippines opened it’s doors to world trade and with the coming of a liberal leader in the person of Governor Carlos Maria de la Torre. The Spaniards were unable to suppress the tide of rebellion among the Filipinos. The once religious spirit transformed itself into one of nationalism and the Filipinos demanded changes in the government and in the church.
A.The Propaganda Movement
The Propaganda Movement was a literary and cultural organization formed in 1872 by Filipino émigrés who had settled in Europe. Composed of Filipino liberals exiled in 1872 and students attending Europe's universities, the organization aimed to increase Spanish awareness of the needs of its colony, the Philippines, and to propagate a closer relationship between the colony and Spain.[ Its prominent members included José Rizal, author of Noli Me Tangere (novel) and El Filibusterismo, Graciano López Jaena, publisher of La Solidaridad, the movement's principal organ, Mariano Ponce, the organization's secretary and Marcelo H. del Pilar. Objectives of the Movement:
1.Representation of the Philippines in the Cortes Generales, the Spanish parliament; 2.Secularization of the clergy;
3.Legalization of Spanish and Filipino equality;
4.Creation of a public school system independent of the friars; 5.Abolition of the polo (labor service) and vandala (forced sale of local products to the government); 6.Guarantee of basic freedoms of speech and association;
7.Equal opportunity for Filipinos and Spanish to enter government service; 8.Recognition of the Philippines as a province of Spain;
9.Secularization of Philippine parishes;
10.Recognition of human rights.
B. Highlights of the Propaganda Movement
Dr. Jose Rizal (1861-1896)
José Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonzo Realonda (June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896), was a Filipino polymath, patriot and the most prominent advocate for reform in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial era. Rizal was born to a rich family in Calamba, Laguna and was the seventh of eleven children. He attended the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, earning a Bachelor of Arts, and enrolled in medicine at the University of Santo Tomas. He continued his studies at the Universidad Central de Madrid in Madrid, Spain, earning the degree of Licentiate in Medicine. He also attended the University of Paris and earned a second doctorate at the University of Heidelberg. As a political figure, José Rizal was the founder of La Liga Filipina, a civic organization that subsequently gave birth to the Katipunan led by Andrés Bonifacio, which would start the Philippine Revolution against Spain, leading to the foundation of the First Philippine Republic under Emilio Aguinaldo. He was a proponent of achieving Philippine self-government peacefully through institutional reform rather than through violent revolution, although he would support "violent means" as a last resort. Rizal believed that the only justification for national liberation and self-government is the restoration of the dignity of the people, saying "Why independence, if the slaves of today will be the tyrants of tomorrow?" The general consensus among Rizal scholars is that his execution by the Spanish government ignited the Philippine Revolution. He died by musketry in the hands of the Spaniards on December 30,1896 on charges of sedition and rebellion against the Spaniards. His pen-name was Laong Laan and Dimasalang. Books and Writngs:
1.Noli ME Tangere 1886 (Touch Me Not)
This was the novel that gave spirit to the propaganda movement and paved the way to the revolution against Spain. In this book, he courageously exposed the...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document