Objectives of the research: To study portfolio analysis.
Secondary Data: The secondary data has been collected from various reference books and websites which have been mentioned in the bibliography at the end of the project Limitations of the Research: Problems of selection of right information available from various sources. Scope of the Research: The main objective of the project is to get to know about the different models of portfolio analysis.
This project report is a review based on theory as well as the industry outlook of performance appraisal system of organizations. The report starts with the Introduction and Literature Review of performance appraisal system that outlines its history, definitions, purposes, types, process, methods, appraiser, parameters of evaluation and the essentials of an effective appraisal system. Further 3 case studies related to performance appraisal system are added .Last, the conclusions and references have been mentioned.
History of performance appraisal
Methods of performance appraisal
The process by which a manager or consultant (1) examines and evaluates an employee's work behavior by comparing it with preset standards, (2) documents the results of the comparison, and (3) uses the results to provide feedback to the employee to show where improvements are needed and why. Performance appraisals are employed to determine who needs what training, and who will be promoted, demoted, retained, or fired.
‘PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL IS A FORMAL, STRUCTURED SYSTEM OF MEASURING AND EVALUATING AN EMPLOYEES JOB, RELATED BEHAVIORS AND OUTCOMES TO DISCOVER HOW AND WHY THE EMPLOYEE IS PRESENTLY PERFORMING ON THE JOB AND HOW THE EMPLOYEE CAN PERFORM MORE EFFECTIVELY IN THE FUTURE SO THAT THE EMPLOYEE, ORGANIZATION, AND SOCIETY ALL BENEFIT’.
Performance appraisal is a process of summarizing, assessing and developing the work performance of an employee. In order to be effective and constructive, the performance manager should make every effort to obtain as much objective information about the employee's performance as possible.
Performance Appraisal is a review and discussion of an employee's performance of assigned duties and responsibilities based on results obtained by the employee in their job, not on the employee's personality characteristics. Personality should be considered only when it relates to performance of assigned duties and responsibilities.
It is a structured formal interaction between a subordinate and supervisor, that usually takes the form of a periodic interview (annual or semi-annual), in which the work performance of the subordinate is examined and discussed, with a view to identifying weaknesses and strengths as well as opportunities for improvement and skills development.
In many organizations - but not all - appraisal results are used, either directly or indirectly, to help determine reward outcomes. That is, the appraisal results are used to identify the better performing employees who should get the majority of available merit pay increases, bonuses, and promotions.
By the same token, appraisal results are used to identify poorer performers, who may require some form of counseling, or in extreme cases, demotion, dismissal or decreases in pay. HISTORY OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
The history of performance appraisal is quite brief. Its roots in the early 20th century can be traced to Taylor's pioneering Time and Motion studies. But this is not very helpful, for the same may be said about almost everything in the field of modern human resources management.
As a distinct and formal...
Bibliography: Yet in a broader sense, the practice of appraisal is a very ancient art. In the scale of things historical, it might well lay claim to being the world 's second oldest profession!
There is, says Dulewicz (1989), "..
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