A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.
Individuals behave in a given manner based not on the way their external environment actually is but, rather, on what they see or believe it to be. An organization may spend millions of dollars to create a pleasant work environment for its employees. However, in spite of these expenditures, if an employee believes that his or her job is lousy, that employee will behave accordingly.
Absenteeism, turnover, and job satisfaction are also reactions to the individual’s perceptions. Dissatisfaction with working conditions or the belief that there is a lack of promotion opportunities in the organization.
Factor Influencing Perception
When an individual looks at target and attempt to interprate what he or she sees,
That interpretation is heavily influenced by the personal character of individual perceiver,
Factor in the perceiver ➢ Attitude ➢ Motives ➢ Interests ➢ Experience ➢ Expectations
Factor in the Situation ➢ Time ➢ Work Setting ➢ Social setting
Factor in the target
➢ Novelty ➢ Motion ➢ Sounds ➢ Size ➢ Back Ground ➢ Proximity ➢ Similarity
Attribution theory suggests that when we observe an individual’s behavior, we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused. When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.
➢ Internal causes are under that person’s control. ➢ External causes are not – person forced to act in that way.
That determination depends largely on three factors:
Distinctiveness Refers to whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situation.
Consensus Response is the same as