1. Patients diagnosed with liver cancer generally have a high mortality. Explain why.
2. Tony is a chronic alcoholic who suffers from cirrhosis of the liver. Explain how conditions such as a prolonged clotting time, jaundice, portal hypertension, and ascites can all be related to his cirrhosis.
3. Steve really likes bacon. At breakfast, Steve can easily eat 10 slices of bacon. One day, he feels pain in the upper right quadrant. Upon examination, the doctor explains that Steve has gallstones and suggests using an ultrasound procedure to pulverize them so they can be easily passed. Steve undergoes the lithotripsy but several months later has another attack. Gallstones do recur, especially if the diet is high in cholesterol. The doctor suggests surgery to remove the gallbladder. Steve concurs. Now, at breakfast, Steve feels uncomfortable if he consumes 10 slices of bacon, but he feels fine if he eats 2 slices and no more. Steve decides to alter his diet to reduce his fat intake. a. What does the gallbladder store?
b. How are gallstones produced?
c. How the gallbladder is indirectly related to a digestion? d. Why does Steve need to reduce his fat intake after gallbladder surgery? e. After removal of the gallbladder, how does bile enter the small intestine?
4. Other than its great length, what structural factors contribute to the great absorptive surface of the small intestine?
5. Why may severe diarrhea be a serious problem in infants?
6. What are the causes and effects of hepatitis?
Hepatitis is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the liver. There are three types of hepatitis A, B, and C. Hepatitis A :
7. Why should a person who suffers from peptic ulcers avoid the use of aspirin (acetylsalisylic acid)?
8. Textbook case: In Adam’s case, the proctologist described a future test in which pathologists would look for genetic changes in sloughed off colon cells. What kind of changes might they look for?
9. Colorectal cancer often develops from polyps in the intestinal lining. What is a polyp and why might a polyp become cancerous? The last part of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is the large intestine. The large intestine is a long muscular tube mainly consists of colon, cecum, rectum and anus in the end. The colons main function is to absorb nutrients, water and lubrication of the feces so the bowel movement can be easily made. Sometimes protruding structure may develop inside the lumen (bowel cavity). They look like small bumps along the internal lining of the intestine which are mainly called polyps. They may develop on the small stalk like a mushroom and may be flat like a bump. Most of the times the polyps are noncancerous such type of polyps are known as hyperplasic. While the other type of polyps which raises the risk for colorectal cancer are known as adenomatous polyps. The adenomatous polyps are larger in size from more than an inch which may develop small areas of cancer. Most polyps do not cause any symptoms but the larger adenomatous polyps may cause blood in the stool. Therefore, such polyps may have to be removed during the colonoscopy (American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy).
American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. (n.d.). Retrieved November 28, 2013, from Understanding polyps and their treatment: http://www.asge.org/patients/patients.aspx?id=396
1. Define the terms metabolism, anabolism, and catabolism.
2. About how many calories are released from a tablespoon of butter (14 grams), a tablespoon of sugar (12 grams) and a tablespoon of egg white (15 grams)?
3. Emily’s body temperature increased from 36.2 degrees Celsius to 36.5 degrees Celsius and then decreased to 36.2 degrees Celsius. Describe the feedback mechanisms regulating Emily’s body temperature. 4. Define fever. Name some aspects of...
References: Excretory Organs. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.hartnell.edu/faculty/asteinhardt/mywebs/excretory_organs.htm
Learnthings Content. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://learnthings.co.za/content/secondary/Home/Lessons/Science/Biology/Grade10/organisat/excretion/theformat/default.htm
PinkMonkey.com Biology Study Guide - 19.3 Skin and Lungs as Accessory Excretory Organs. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.pinkmonkey.com/studyguides/subjects/biology-edited/chap19/b1919301.asp
2. Why do long haul trailer truck drivers frequently experience kidney problems?
3. Mr. Casey is a healthy 67-year-old man. Explain how his urinary system would differ from that of his 10-year-old grandson.
4. For the past week, Patsy has felt a burning sensation in the urethral area when she urinates. She checks her temperature and finds she has a low-grade fever. What unusual substances are likely to be present in her urine? Explain why Patsy is more likely to suffer from this condition than her husband.
5. Laboratory tests show that Brandon, a normal 15-year-old has a high glucose level in his urine and a normal glucose level in his blood. The normal level of blood glucose indicates he does not have diabetes mellitus. What condition would account for these glucose measurements?
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