People Have Become Overly Dependent on Technology

Topics: Sustainability, Environment, Environmentalism Pages: 9 (2298 words) Published: January 5, 2013
1. Introduction
The last half-century ago, many countries are undeveloped and developing. They need to focus on the economic indicators such as GDP but without concern about environmental issues. Over the past three decades, people are being to concern about the environmental issues because of unbalance development between economic and environmental. Recently, sustainable development was first used in the 1980’s to express concern around the world. In this report is to identify the existing strategies and practices within hotels through literature and corporate communications materials. The report will use the in-depth interview and analyze data and discuss the findings with the method. Finally, the report will make a conclusion and recommendation for the selected topic.

2. Literature Review
a) Definition of Sustainable Development
Sustainable development is a wider development which includes social and natural capacities. Based on the Brundtland Commission in Kirk (1997), sustainable development “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. There are two key concepts to achieve it as well as adaptations to the tourism industry in the form of sustainable tourism. i) the concept of 'needs', in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and ii) the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs.

b) “Sustainable marketing”
Middleton and Hawkins’s concept of sustainable marketing was environmental and financial goals must balance because it depends on each other. There are three “E”s to support the sustainable marketing strategy. i) Economy – it is making revenue or income; ii) Ecology – it is making environmental quality; iii) Equity – it is giving a better distribution of the benefits of tourism. Middleton and Hawkins said that a hotel’s marketing and design will decide the types of tourists, who will stay there, and what kinds of need they will have and what kind of effects they will have on the local environment.

Middleton and Hawkins also mention 10 “R”s for organizations to achieve the sustainable marketing strategy. They are: Recognize environmental problems, Refuse any damaging activities, Reduce waste and resources, Replace environmentally questionable activities, Re-use – consider of re-using potential waste, Recycle, Re-engineer organizational structures, Retrain employees in environmental issues, Reward successful attainment of environmental objectives, Reeducate employees and customers, to benefit the environment.

Agenda 21 also suggested the actions can be done by public. There are: assessment of the capacity of the destination's systems to become sustainable; training, education, and public awareness; facilitating exchange of sustainable tourism information between developed and developing countries; providing for the participation of all sectors of society; design of new tourism products; measuring progress.

c) Environmental management system (ISO 14001)
ISO 14001 is for environmental management. Its standards or guidelines to help organizations by standardizing some key environmental analysis tools. It also guides the organization to have a complete environmental management system, and meet customers, industry, and legislation limits.

Under the ISO14001, companies need to do are as follows: i) minimize harmful effects on the environment caused by its activities; ii) to conform to applicable regulatory requirements; iii) to achieve continual improvement of its environmental performance.

3. Methodology
It is using qualitative method to make a research. There are different types of qualitative research methods including in-depth interviews, focus groups, case studies, ethnography and phenomenology. Our group is choosing in-depth interview for this report. In-depth...

References: Bull, A. (1993). The economics of travel and tourism. Melbourne, Australia: Pitman Publishing.
Cooper, H. M. (1989). Integrating research: A guide for literature reviews (2nd edition). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Forte, J. (1994). Environmentally-friendly management in hotels. In B. Taylor, C. Hutchinson, S. Pollack, & R. Tapper (Eds.) Environmental Management Handbook. Pitman Publishing.
Smith, G. D., Arnold, D. R., & Bizzell, B. G. (1991). Business strategy and policy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Kirk, D. (1997) Environmental management for hotels. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.
Kotler, P. (1999). Marketing: Millennium Edition. Prentice Hall.
Hughes, G. (1995). The cultural construction of sustainable tourism. Tourism Management 16(1), 49- 59.
Aragón-Correa, J. A. (1998). Strategic proactivity and firm approach to the natural environment. Academy of Management Journal 41
Boyd, S
Ecotourism Society (2000). Frequently asked questions. [On-line]. Available:
Friends of the Earth (2000). Plane crazy: Airport growth in the UK. [On-line]. Available: Accessed 20/01/00.
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